Michael Creswell and Marc Trachtenberg reply to the three commentaries, emphasizing the conflicting points raised therein. Addressing each of the respondents in turn, Creswell and Trachtenberg contend that their article accurately depicts French concerns in the late 1940s and 1950s, that it goes beyond existing "revisionist" works on the topic, that it debunks the traditionalist view of French policy, and that it makes use of the best evidence to judge French leaders' real (rather than publicly proclaimed) concerns.