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488 LANGUAGE, VOLUME 76, NUMBER 2 (2000) Lardil itself as well as observations on two special ceremonial languages—Demiin, and the sign language Marida Kangka. In traditional Lardil society, initiates used Marida Kangka for most communication needs during the year after their circumcision. After a second initiation rite involving subincision, initiates used Demiin, a spoken language quite different from Lardil. The book begins with an introductory chapter (3-11) discussing the history of Lardil-White interaction and the reasons for Aboriginal language attrition on Mornington Island (Lardil is now moribund). The remaining eleven chapters detail aspects of how the Lardil traditionally classified their world, both cognitively and linguistically. Ch. 2 (15-32), entitled 'Coming into being and going out of being', discusses the main aspects of the life cycle: conception, birth, the umbilical ceremony (yirri), initiation rites, and death. Ch. 3 (33-53) discusses kinship systems and terminology. Ch. 4 (54-75) explains Lardil usage of personal names and nicknames. Interestingly , human nicknames could be applied to dogs but not other animals. Ch. 5 (76-120) uses linguistic categories to explain Lardil customs of land tenure. The next three chapters are devoted to how plants and animal species are classified in the grammatical and lexical structure of Lardil (123-42), Demiin (143-55), and Marida Kangka (156-73). M notes that Marida Kangka is more than simply a way of signing messages expressed verbally in Lardil or Demiin (157). While Lardil vocabulary abounds in monomial designations for individual species and Lardil grammar contains nineteen personal pronouns , the signs of Marida Kangka usually express life forms (tree, shellfish, animal, etc.) and convey eight pronoun distinctions; and Demiin, whose monomial nominal lexicon conveys genus rather than species, contains only two personal pronouns. The final four chapters analyze how Lardil spiritual beliefs superimpose an additional, totemic classification onto elements of the tangible world. Ch. 9 (175-92) discusses the eight class subsections in detail . Ch. 10 (193-206), entitled 'Thuwathu the Rainbow Serpent', analyzes an important Lardil myth and its significance for linguistic classification systems. Ch. 1 1 (207-26) explains beliefs involving markirii 'sickness', thought to result when elements from land and sea are improperly mixed outside one's home territory. Ch. 12 (227-41) extends this analysis to the semiotics of Lardil body decorations and other visual art. An epilog (242-46) explains additional connections between the Rainbow Serpent myth and material aspects ofLardil culture such as land tenure and naming practices. This book is highly recommended for anyone interested in nonverbal communication, nominal classification , semantics, kinship terminology, and of course Australian Aboriginal languages and cultures. [Edward T. Vajda, Western Washington University.] Directions in functional linguistics. Ed. by Akio Kamio. (Studies in language companion series 36.) Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 1997. Pp. xii, 259. The volume is a collection of papers presented at a symposium, "The future of functional linguistics', held in 1991 at Dokkyo University, Tapan. The major thrust of all nine papers in the volume is the need for functional notions in linguistic analyses. A numberofpapers draw examples from discourse data. Using English, Korean, and Iapanese, Patricia Clancy, Noriko Akatsuka, and Susan Strauss explicate the use of conditionals in expressing deontic modality by showing the pragmatic overlap between them. Based on his study of written diary narrative, Paul Hopper reports that in detailed, first-hand accounts of events the basic phrases used are dispersed predicates, e.g. head straight in, and not simple verbs. Hopperreminds us that grammardoes not simply code events, and he argues against the autonomous view of events. Sandra Thompson points out a link between the core-oblique distinction and parameters of information flow: Core NPs are more likely to be identifiable, activated, and tracking than are oblique NPs. Her English database confirmed the relation and suggested that communicative motivations are behind the seemingly universal core-oblique distinction. Ellen Prince's article uncovers three distinct types of left dislocation in English. Wesley Jacobsen's paper offers an account of agentivity that has two apparently conflicting meanings , durativity and changeability, analyzed in terms of iterated change. A paper by Akio Kamio shows that Tapanese extensively uses what he calls the indirect form, which consists of a statement...


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