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BOOK NOTICES 191 order to develop an account of early semantic judgement abilities in processing English verbs The development of semantic representations of single words and their category boundaries is the foundation for the only explicit process model in the volume (the Random Step Algorithm), in which Partha Niyogi and Robert C. Berwick examine how children can learn appropriate syntactic ordering on the basis of lexical knowledge. Although this volume will be a useful reference for those developing bootstrapping models themselves , it will be most appropriate for computational modelers of other persuasions (e.g. artificial neural network researchers) who might not have considered how the processing of syntactic information really depends on the successful development ofphonology and/or semantics. This issue is particularly relevant for developmental models of speech production and reading which provide no explicit account of semantic processing and its effect on lexical and/or nonlexical language processing. [Paul A. Waiters, University ofNewcastle, NSW.] Computer-assisted language learning: Context and conceptualization. By Michael Levy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. Pp. xv, 298. CALL is in vogue at present, in language teaching and learning. There is, indeed, a large amount of CALL material, and there are a number of projects in the CALL journals and at conferences. However, CALL seems to be still largely the domain of the CALL enthusiast, and there is scant evidence to suggest that CALL has really been absorbed into mainstream thinking, education, and practice. This may be because of a lack of guidelines, standards, or frameworks for the current generation of CALL materials . Levy attempts to create such guidelines, conceptualizing CALL, as shown in the subtitle. After the introduction, the book's remaining seven chapters are divided into three sections. The first part provides CALL background in both historical and interdisciplinary terms. The second part gives a more detailed background through a review of the literature and a survey of CALL researchers. These two parts provide frameworks for discussing aspects and issues of CALL, leading to the last part in which solutions are suggested. Part I, Ch. 2, 'CALL in context I: A historical perspective', outlines CALL'S history through three main periods: the 1960s and 1970s, the 1980s, and the 1990s. The historical perspective not only highlights the developments and the thinking of each period but identifies some of the less variant qualities of CALL, and highlights insights and developments made some years ago that still have contemporary relevance. In Ch. 3. 'CALL in context II: An interdisciplinary perspective', L describes the contributions to CALL of computational linguistics, instructional technology and design, human-computer interaction studies, and especially the major contributions of psychology and artificial intelligence. In Part II, Chs. 4-6 focus in much more detail on how CALL has been conceptualized. Ch. 4, 'Conceptualization I: The CALL literature', looks at aspects and issues in the literature on CALL. Ch. 5, 'Conceptualization IL The CALL survey', presents the findings of an international CALL survey that was conducted in late 1991 and early 1992. A questionnaire was sent to 23 countries; key practitioners in CALL from 18 countries replied. The literature and the survey together give a comprehensive overview of how language teachers and CALL authors have so far seen computers used in language teaching and learning. Ch. 6, 'Emerging themes and patterns of development', draws out most of the recognizable patterns that are shown when CALL is viewed as a whole. Part III, Ch. 7, ? tutor-tool framework', presents a conceptual framework in which the roles of the computer as tutor, tool, and tutee are considered. This leads to consideration of the implications of these roles in terms of the learning environment, the methodology, the role ofthe teacher and learner, integration and the curriculum, and evaluation. Ch. 8, 'On the nature of CALL', presents an overview of a number of issues such as the relationship between theory and application and the effects of the computer , and of technology, more generally. The book has four appendices: the CALL survey, the design ofthe CALL survey, miscellaneous charts, and resources on the Internet. The first three give more details about the CALL survey discussed m Ch. 5, including the original script of the survey...


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