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BOOK NOTICES 185 in the first part of the 'Introduction' (1-66) by Samuel D. Epstein, Höskuldur Thräinsson, and C. Jan-Wouter Zwart. In the second part of the introduction the authors outline how the papers in the volume address these issues, relating the problems and solutions presented in the papers to the general program of generative syntactic theory past and present . The papers concerned with the theory of phrase structures include 'Spell-out at the LF interface' (Eric Groat & John O'Neil, 1 13-39) in which the authors try to reduce the difference between prespell -out and post-spell-out operations to the possibility of carrying phonological features to the head of a given chain, and Guido Vanden Wynegard's paper 'Participles and bare argument structure' (283-304), in which the author suggests that Dutch past participles are in fact organized in a phrase structure , thus enabling him to distinguish ergative and unergative verbs. In 'Raising quantifiers without quantifier raising' (189-98), Hisatsugu Kitahara gives an account of scope interpretation that does not rely on quantifier raising. His chain-based analysis exploits case movement and WH-movement in order to account for scope relations. Like Kitahara, Dianne Jonas explores the general subject of licensing in 'Clause structure, expletives, and verb movement' (167-88). Jonas argues that the availability of the specifier of TP depends on the existence of V-to-T movement in a language. Marcel Den Dikken in "The minimal links of verb (projection) raising' (67-96) discusses the differences between verb raising and verb projection, ultimately relating them to the presence vs. absence of a TP complement of the verb. Another important issue discussed in this book is the nature of economy conditions. C. Jan-Wouter Zwart in ' "Shortest move" versus "fewest steps" ' (305-27), argues that the shortest move requirement can be replaced by independently motivated principles . In Optional movement in the minimalist program ' (199-216), Geoffrey Poole addresses the issue of optionality; he proposes that only the operation 'move' but not 'form chain' is subject to economy principles, thus allowing for optionality whenever 'form chain' does not co-occur with 'move'. K. Scott Ferguson in 'Shortest move and object case checking' (97-1 1 1) discusses the notion of what constitutes a potential landing site, thus relativizing the notion of shortest move. In "The typology of syntactic positions: L-relatedness and the A/A'-distinction' (141-65), Liliane Haegeman argues that in addition to the notion of L-relatedness, the A/A'-distinction is also needed. Höskuldur Thráinsson, 'On the (non-)universality of functional categories' (253-81), addresses the issues of universality and parametric variation; he argues that the instantiation of functional categories varies among languages. Jaume Sola in 'Morphology and word order in Germanic languages' (217-51), also discusses parametric variation. He claims that word order variation is not due to a distinction between weak and strong features but rather depends on the presence vs. absence of inflectional morphology. The volume provides a good overview of many of the most discussed topics in the minimalist framework . Thanks to the introduction, it is also accessible to researchers and students less familiar with the minimalist program. [Martin Kappus, State University ofNew York, Stony Brook.] Cohesion through contrast: Discourse structure in Shaba Swahili/French conversations . By Vincent A. De Rooij (Studies in language and language use. 24). Amsterdam: Institute for Functional Research into Language and Language Use, 1996. Pp. x, 221. De Rooij's book is a good example of field research which has been conducted under adverse conditions in a country famous for political unrest and economic chaos. Nevertheless, the author has succeeded in obtaining material which complements our knowledge of a major sociolinguistic phenomenon. Data like these are of particular importance for illustrating informal, spontaneous tendencies in language change and use with reference to sub-Saharan Africa. As the title of the book indicates, the material discussed covers code-switching with reference to Shaba (Lubumbashi) Swahili and French. The data originate mainly from Lubumbashi in then Zaire (now again the Democratic Republic of Congo). After the introduction (1-3) R reviews relevant sociolinguistic positions such as variation and its interdependence on...


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