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BOOK NOTICES 175 abic' (95-1 14) is an engaging study based on a questionnaire distributed to 117 Tunisian university students concerning their own dialectal pronunciations of 'you' and various verbal forms, including imperatives. One result, reminiscent of work in the 1960s by Joseph H. Greenberg, was that for almost everyone, the use of inti 'you' for both genders implied the generalized use of no gender distinction in the verbal forms investigated (103). Laïla Lalami's 'Clitic left dislocation in Moroccan Arabic' (1 15-29) explains why 'a phrase, which should normally appear in a given clause, ends up appearing in its leftmost position' (1 16). The conclusion is that this process is base generated. Kimary N. Shahin's 'Accessing pharyngeal place in Palestinian Arabic' (131-49) seems out of place in a section entitled 'grammatical perspectives'. It deals with the well-known 'emphasis spread' and pharyngealization harmony in rural Palestinian Arabic (Abu Shusha dialect). Elabbas Benmamoun's 'The derivation of the imperative in Arabic' concludes that the imperative is derived from the imperfect indicative (151-64). This analysis, however, does not work for hollow verbs; rather, the imperfect jussive must serve as the base (which is the traditional analysis). Naomi Bolotin's 'Resetting parameters in acquiring Arabic' (167-78) offers evidence indicating that 'L2 learners . . . acquire nativelike intuitions about the second language and that parameter resetting in L2 acquisition is possible' (177). It is unclear how the 27 students at Middlebury College used in the study could have acquired 'nativelike intuition' of relative-clause formation in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), which is not spoken natively by any Arab. An Arabic speaker's intuition of MSA should be understood in terms of the native colloquial dialect. LaYMA Abdulkarim's 'Ellipsis as a mirror ofcase and agreement principles in language acquisition' compares children acquiring Najdi Arabic and English (179-91). One conclusion concerning a universal default case is that in Arabic, anaa T is the default whereas in English, the pronoun me is (186). Martine Vanhove's 'The negation maasii in a Yaafi'i dialect (Yemen)' (195-206) covers maasii 'nothing' and (despite the title) other negative particles in the mountains around Yaafi', 120 miles northeast of Aden. The existence of lam (197) seems incredible since, in all probability, it cannot be a borrowing from MSA (because the informant is illiterate and has never left her native Tenhara). Marie-Claude Simeone-Senelle's 'Negation in some Arabic dialects of the Tihaamah of the Yemen' (207-21) covers that area's entire range of negative markers and constructions. Of great interest are the negative daa?, a loanword from Sabean, and the particle lees — lays = Classical Arabic laysa 'not to be' (208) Elizabeth M. Bergman's 'Ma-tiYrafxeer-i: Verbal negation in Egyptian and Moroccan Arabic proverbs ' (223-46) investigates proverbs in Moroccan and ECA dialects. In the latter's proverbs, one can negate a verb with ma rather than the normal ma+ —s. The proverbial usage is Classical and has been previously investigated in the literature under 'emphatic negation' (230-31). The strength of this tome is the section on negation , since new information based on fieldwork is presented. [Alan S. Kaye, California State University , Fullerton.] Sentence analysis, valency, and the concept of adject. Ed. by Niels DavidsenNielsen (Copenhagen studies in language 19.) Frederiksberg, Denmark: Samfundslitteratur, 1996. Pp. 157. Denmark is one ofthe places in continental Europe where the study of valency—which in other parts of the world now usually goes under the name of 'argument structure' —continues to occupy a central position in both theoretical and descriptive linguistics , and quite a few Danish linguists have developed a valency theory of their own. This book centers around one of these, viz. the proposal developed since 1 982 by Michael Herslund and Finn S0rensen ofthe Copenhagen Business School to limit the number of categories used in addition to the verb to three: subject, object, and 'adject', the last covering the traditional categories of indirect object, subject complement , object complement, and (obligatory) adverbial , which, Herslund and S0rensen argue, have a complementary distribution and a common, 'locative ', semantics. In addition to an editor's preface and a brief (five pages) introduction by Herslund...


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