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684 LANGUAGE, VOLUME 74, NUMBER 3 (1998) A Russian-English collocational dictionary of the human body. By Lidua Iordanskaya and Slava Paperno; English equivalents by Lesli LaRocco and Jean Mackenzie; ed. by Richard L. Leed. Columbus, OH: Slavica Publishers , 1996. Pp. xxvii. 418. This dictionary contains 73 entries in 418 pages. The aim 'is to present all the information necessary for the correct use of the ... Russian words and expressions' (v). While the primary audience is people learning Russian, it should also be of interest to researchers in Russian and to lexicographers. Sixty-five headwords refer to body parts, including external body parts (e.g. 6edpo 'hip', auuji 'face'', pyica 'arm, hand'), external phenomena (e.g. ôopoda 'beard', eoAOCbt 'hair'), bones (KAK>Huu,a 'clavicle', AonamKa 'shoulder blade'), and organs (cepdufi 'heart', oxenydoK 'stomach'). Three describe emissions (¡cpoeb 'blood', nom 'sweat', cne3a 'tear' ), three describe 'emissions of emotional states' (cMex 'laughter', yAbtÔKa 'smile', xoxom 'loud laughter') and two describe the voice (zoaoc 'speaking voice', zoaoc 'singing voice'). Each entry begins with the headword, translation equivalents, and examples followed by comments on 'Style' when not neutral (e.g. colloquial, rude, technical ). Next come 'Semantics', 'Morphology', and 'Syntax' sections. 'Semantics' presents a basic definition , uses of the word with animals, and related meanings (including metaphorical meanings). 'Morphology ' includes morphophonemic and morphological information. 'Syntax' includes information on use with possessors and restrictive modifiers. These are followed by 'Lexical relationships' and finally by 'Sample texts' . 'Lexical relationships' is the core of each entry. This section begins with related forms including synonyms , diminutives, augmentatives, syntactic derivatives (usually adjectival forms), hypernyms (parts of x), and hyponyms (what ? is a part of). These are followed by collocations listed under general headings like 'appearance, conditions and sensations', and 'movements'. Individual collocations frequently include comments or examples. A preface and foreword provide a good introduction to the dictionary as well as to general problems faced by lexicographers and how many can be resolved by collocational information. The dictionary is ofparticular use to those learning Russian. Itindicates, for example, that axydoe nuup is a 'thin face' while xydbie ôedpo are 'bony hips'; a 'bony face' is KocmnHeoe Auup. A ?µa,? can also be moAcmoe 'fat', MÏÏcucmoe 'fleshy' or nyxAoe 'plump'. For lexicographers, the dictionary shows how collocational information can help differentiate synonyms . For example, while 6K)cm 'breast' refers specifically to outward appearance, zpydb 'breast' has a more general meaning as shown by the collocation KopMumb zpydbR) 'to breastfeed' (*Kopjnumb 6K)cmoM). This emphasis on collocations explains the decision to differentiate headwords like naneu,1 'finger' and naneu} 'toe': they exhibit different collocational relationships. It probably also explains the inclusion of technical words like Kucmb 'hand' which is synonymous with the more common pyica 'arm, hand' but is used in far fewer collocations. My criticisms are minor. Examples of different types of restrictive modifiers (relative clauses, participles , adjectives) in 'Syntax' are apparently random. Some of the choices of headwords seem idiosyncratic . Forexample, muKonomrca 'ankle' is included while the more common nodbiXKa 'ankle' is not. The headwordnodotuea 'sole' is a synonym ofcmynniP ·, not cmynnH^. Some of die text in the foreword (xix) has been omitted. These problems, however, should not detract from its value to students of Russian and to lexicographers. [John M. Clifton, University ofNorth Dakota/Summer Institute ofLinguistics .] Language in cognitive development: The emergence of the mediated mind. By Katherine Nelson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Pp xiv, 432. Cloth $49.95, paper $19.95. Nelson's central argument is that as the young child leams to master the full range of representational and communicative uses of language, she progresses through different stages of cognitive development. N's theoretical approach to cognitive development is experiential. Within this approach, the child is viewed as an 'acting and interacting person ' (4) who derives knowledge 'from action in the world, from perception, from biological dispositions to organize patterns of experience in specific ways, from social interactions and activities, and from cultural arrangements' (6). Based on findings from her own research and that of others, N shows that cognitive development is crucially dependent on the acquisition of specific linguistic categories and concepts, and speech genres. According to N, children begin constructing...

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Additional Information

ISSN
1535-0665
Print ISSN
0097-8507
Pages
pp. 684-685
Launched on MUSE
2015-04-01
Open Access
No
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