The Behavior Education Program (BEP) is a check-in, check-out intervention implemented with students who are at-risk for engaging in more severe problem behavior. Previous research with middle and elementary school students found that the BEP was more effective with students who had adult attention maintained problem behavior. The purposes of this study were to (a) replicate previous research on the effectiveness of the BEP in reducing problem behavior in elementary schools and (b) investigate the relationship between function of problem behavior and effectiveness of the BEP. Results indicated that the BEP was implemented with high fidelity, lead to decreases in office discipline referrals for the majority of students who received the intervention, and received high social validity ratings. Results also indicated that the BEP was more effective for students who had peer versus adult attention maintained problem behavior. The BEP was also effective for a student whose problem behavior was maintained by access to tangibles and of the two students who had escape maintained problem behavior, one student demonstrated reductions in referrals following implementation. Limitations of the current study are discussed along with implications for future research and school practice.