China has developed a multi-tier strategy in its human rights diplomacy. It has three aspects: in the multilateral international human rights arena, China’s approach is dominated by the sovereignty principle and organising like-minded countries into a coalition; in bilateral diplomatic channels, China follows a combined policy of dialogue, negotiation, bargaining and supplementary economic incentives; and on certain international human rights issues such as in the case of Darfur, China mainly applies ad hoc and flexible policies. The core of China’s approach is to protect its sovereignty as it continues to insist that human rights are a domestic matter. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to maintain this rigid position. China must adjust its practice to conform to the international norms.


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pp. 217-245
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