Garlic mustard, a biennial Eurasian species, has extensively invaded eastern North American deciduous forests. We studied effects of 3 years (2005–2007) of annual removal of second-year garlic mustard plants on first-year plants and native spring herbaceous species in upland and lowland woods. Treatments compared removal of second-year plants in mid-March (early treatment) or mid-May (late treatment) to a control. We recorded first- and second-year plants and native herbaceous species percent cover on April 19 and 20. First-year plant cover was higher on control than treatment plots; however, in the upland woods only control and late treatment plots differed significantly. First-year plant cover was less in removal than control plots, indicating reduced seed input; however, we found no difference in cover of second-year plants between late treatment and control plots. Results suggest second-year plants strongly compete with younger conspecifics, and their removal decreases first-year plant mortality. Removal of second-year garlic mustard did not significantly affect total cover of native herbaceous species. Second-year plants complete vegetative growth before late May and might impact early developing native species more than later growing species. We tested effect of removal of garlic mustard on native species in 2 phenological categories: spring- and summer-dominant species. We found no treatment effects on summer-dominant species. However, early treatment plots had significantly more cover of spring-dominant plants than late treatment and control in the upland woods. Indicator Species Analysis indicated a majority of spring (75%) and summer (50%) dominant species maximized performance in the early treatment.


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pp. 225-233
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