This paper discusses how the Swazi Government and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in Swaziland have responded to HIV/AIDS between 1986 and 2002. The central strategy has been to use education in various forms in order to change the behaviour of Swazi citizens and non-Swazi residents in the country. This involved adoption of a policy and structures which were informed by research and a variety of field experiences. Through the use of IEC, peer education and mass education, the Swazi Government has eventually decided to set up specialised bodies and to develop programmes focused on changing the behaviour of young people. The central focus is to develop life styles which reduce risky behaviour and which also avoid risky situations. The central goals of the HIV/AIDS education strategy have been to prevent HIV infection, deal with impact mitigation and eliminate stigma.