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BOOK REVIEWS127 Church as an inspiring voice who promised to help keep secularism at bay. Lamennais, however, pushed the vague Ultramontanism of Bonald's later works to an unexpected extreme. By the 1830's (in his Paroles d'un croyant) he and his foUowers were urging the Papacy to reinvigorate Christianity by condemning monarchies that oppressed their peoples and betrayed the Church's values of justice and brotherhood. In short, Lamennais transformed the theocratic traditionaUsm of Bonald into a theocratic popuUsm or socialism which the Papacy, then wary of repubUcs, did not feel comfortable condoning. However, few of the theological implications of Bonaldian thought are examined at length by Klinck.The curious reader wUl have to turn elsewhere for indepth analyses of this topic.Too often, KLinck's monograph faüs to penetrate to the heart of Bonald's views and their consequences. Nonetheless, Klinck has provided scholars with a soUd foundation from which to investigate this important but neglected thinker. W Jay Reedy Bryant College L'épiscopatfrançais à l'époque concordataire (1802-1905): Origines,formation , nomination. By Jacques-Olivier Boudon. [Histoire reUgieuse de la France, 9] (Paris: Editions du Cerf. 1996. Pp. 589. 290 F.) Placed at the head of the very distinctive body that the CathoUc clergy constituted in French society, the episcopate represented an elite aU the more powerful as under the regime of the Concordat of 1801 the bishops exercised a more effective authority over their clergy than their predecessors could enjoy under the Ancien Régime. It was a role and a place that can be aU the better studied as that same Napoleonic regime had made of the bishops a category of high functionaries appointed and remunerated by the state; their career, consequently , can be traced in the files set up on them by the central administration, as on aU the servants of the state.The materiaprima, so to speak, of this book by M. Boudon is that legion of 515 ecclesiastical personalities who were raised to the episcopacy Ln France from 1802 to 1905. First the author has studied the social origins and education of his subjects. The very great majority of them came from the urban world, and thus from the lower and middle bourgeoisie.The contribution of the nobiUty,which was large at the beginning of the century (stiU 47% under the Empire), feU rapidly after 1830 to end at no more than 4.5% under the Third RepubUc. From 1830 on there were also some men coming from rural society, but as late as 1900 that element remained a minority (16%). The future bishops were born in very reUgious famiUes, as was natural, and most of them did their classical studies in a CathoUc coUege. The great majority of them (68%) received their clerical formation from the Sulpicians, either at Paris or in the provinces, but the number of degrees that they earned in theology is strangely very low (13%). 128BOOK REVIEWS In the second part the author tries to determine what it was in the priests' early career that could have prepared them for the episcopacy. No doubt the fact of having participated m the administration of a diocese was important.As under the Ancien Régime, the position of vicar-general is one of those that led to the episcopacy (in fact, in 43% of the cases considered). But it happened in a rather different way; whUe previously the episcopacy had appeared as a career in itself, which the younger sons of the nobiUty could try to obtain by underhand means after a few years of apprenticeship, in the nineteenth century it was rather the last stage reserved for the most meritorious of the curés of important parishes, and thus for mature men. Being a professor in a seminary was also a way of access. The intervention of the state in the choice of subjects obUges the author to study the options taken by them in the controversies touching on poUtics, especiaUy that of GalUcanism or Ultramontanism. On the whole, GalUcanism remained dominant up to the Second Empire.At the end of the century it was to perpetuate itself by sUpping into the skin of liberalism,which...


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