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BOOK REVIEWS117 pressive array of monographs on cathedrals which has appeared over the last five years. Andrew Foster Chichester Institute Le Jansénisme en Sorbonne, 1643-1656. By Jacques M. Gres Gayer. [CoUections des Mélanges de la BibUothèque de la Sorbonne, 25.] (Paris; Klincksieck . 1996. Pp. Lx, 382.) Central to the development of this work is the judgment by and exclusion of Antoine Arnauld from the Sorbonne's theological faculty. Perhaps even more of an issue is the relative attachment of various parties to the doctrines of St. Augustine as mediated through the airing at Louvain between those who passionately supported Jansen's interpretation of the ideas of grace of the bishop of Hippo and those Jesuits (chiefly but not exclusively) who, whUe professing adherence to St. Augustine, in fact foUowed Luis Molina and considered Jansen's commentary at least erroneous, if not heretical. Starting with the Sorbonne irenical theologian EUies Dupin, Gres Gayer has concentrated on the development of Jansenism. He has published many articles on the subject and some major works including Théologie etpouvoir en Sorbonne. La faculté de théologie de Paris et la bulle Unigenitus (Paris, 1991). In addition, he has edited and commented on the Mémoires de l'abbé de Beaubrun (Paris, 1995), which constitutes one of the major sources for the work under review. The author casts new light on the origins of the celebrated Five Propositions (originaUy seven), showing that the syndic Nicholas Cornet was not solely responsible for extracting them either asfait or droit from Jansen's work, for the activities of the various deputations sent to Rome to further both sides Ln the dispute over Augustinus, and for the consequent mutual misunderstanding between Roman and French theological mentalities as weU as the gradual (and fatal) undermining ofthe proud and independent tradition ofthe Sorbonne theological faculty. In the Arnauld case we are shown how a combination of pro-Augustinian views created perhaps unnecessary provocation to those differendy inclined, how this along with royal and episcopal interference with the vaunted independence of the Paris theologians ultimately resulted in Arnauld's being accused of error and heresy and excluded from the faculty in company with his adherents. Had Arnauld consistently in public tied his Augustinianism to a Thomistic explanation, something he did with private individuals, the faculty's judgment might not have been so severe. It would also appear that the famous cas de conscience involving the Due de Liancourt,Arnauld, and other acquain- 118BOOK REVIEWS tances of the noble, intimately associated with the circle of Port-Royal, made into a pubUc affair a subject (refusal to give communion to someone who refused to accept the buU Cum Occasione condemning the Five Propositions) normaUy confined to the confessional.The author's conclusion is that Arnauld was not heretical on the issue of the Five Propositions (with the possible exception of Proposition I) and that the decision to exclude Arnauld from the privUeges of the faculty was a tragic mistake which in turn led to a serious weakening of the faculty's enormous prestige and a century and a half of bitter division within the French Church. The last part of the book deals with motivations of the faculty in the Causa Arnauldiana where all the varied theological currents of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries are deftly interwoven.This is a difficult task because the plumitifs, the secretarial record of the discussions, were destroyed and only a record of votes kept. A tabulation of these votes on major issues from around 1640 to I675 occupies pages 305-328.This is an admirable piece of research, one that causes the interested reader to anticipate even greater triumphs from its author. Samuel J. Miller Boston College, Emeritus The Sorrows ofthe QuakerJesus:James Nayler and the Puritan Crackdown on the Free Spirit. By Leo Damrosch. (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. 1996. Pp. xiv, 322. $39.95.) On October 24, 1656,James Nayler, a one-timeYorkshire husbandman turned Independent preacher in the New Model Army and, since 1651, a demobUized soldier and convinced Quaker, entered Bristol in the company of four men and three women,"some on horseback and some on foot" (p. 148) in...


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