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116BOOK REVIEWS Cathedrals under Siege:Cathedrals in English Society, 1600-1 700. By Stanford E. Lehmberg. (University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press. 1996. Pp. xxx, 270. $55.00.) This handsomely produced work provides a sequel to the author's The Reformation ofCathedrals: Cathedrals in English Society, 1485-1603As before, the author has adopted a mixed approach to his topic, entailing in this instance three chapters of narrative spUt logicaUy at the CivU War and then the Restoration , together with six chapters tackling themes or providing conclusions. At the heart of the work Ues a close and detaUed prosopographical analysis of the Uves and careers of more than 2,500 clergy, much of the data assembled by Alice Keeler.The book covers English cathedrals with the exception of Sodor & Man, Ripon, SouthweU, Westminster, and the Chapel Royal at Windsor. The narrative sketches a famUiar gloomy tale of dean and chapter disputes, the constant struggle to maintain the buUdings, controversial campaigns for improvements instigated under Archbishop Laud, foUowed by a tale of woe and destruction during the CivUWar and Interregnum, and concluding with a view of the slow reconstruction of cathedral Ufe after the l660's. Perhaps the general narrative of the seventeenth century impinges too much in these chapters, for more could have been said to reveal the Uves of cathedrals in their own right, and even when detaUs are provided, the story is dominated by architectural evidence . Sadly, it has proved dUficult for the author to convey a sense of deferences between the cathedrals when they have so obviously been treated as a group. This problem affects the statistical material which underpins the later chapters and provides so many impressive-looking tables in the volume.AU too often the figures cited are for the whole of the seventeenth century, or for the cathedrals as a group; hence questions go begging relating to deferences between regions, and cathedrals and over time.While the attempt is made to provide a comprehensive, national picture—buttressd by the statistics and a generous number of Ulustrations—the text frequently descends into anecdotal, descriptive material which Usts rather than analyzes what is contained in the tables. Hence we find that one-third of cathedral clergy published a range of work from theology to poetry and that cathedral finances were in a grim shape and managed in a conservative fashion, but what does this signify? Interesting stories are given to Ulustrate weU-known problems with church music and choirs in this period, but perhaps more could have been done to comment on the interest of Arminians to set the renaissance Ui organ buUding of the 1620's and '30's in context. The last two chapters attempt to provide conclusions concerning the role of cathedrals in society, but here too, the Ust of themes provided simply sketches the outline ofa faUly weU-known story. Cathedrals did indeed survive the turmoU of this period, but in the end it is still not quite clear how they managed this feat, nor to what purpose. The overaU impression is that this was a period of sloth and neglect, and yet the cathedrals somehow formed a force for social cohesion.This was a brave attempt at a full survey, but one which was perhaps sUghtly premature, given the im- BOOK REVIEWS117 pressive array of monographs on cathedrals which has appeared over the last five years. Andrew Foster Chichester Institute Le Jansénisme en Sorbonne, 1643-1656. By Jacques M. Gres Gayer. [CoUections des Mélanges de la BibUothèque de la Sorbonne, 25.] (Paris; Klincksieck . 1996. Pp. Lx, 382.) Central to the development of this work is the judgment by and exclusion of Antoine Arnauld from the Sorbonne's theological faculty. Perhaps even more of an issue is the relative attachment of various parties to the doctrines of St. Augustine as mediated through the airing at Louvain between those who passionately supported Jansen's interpretation of the ideas of grace of the bishop of Hippo and those Jesuits (chiefly but not exclusively) who, whUe professing adherence to St. Augustine, in fact foUowed Luis Molina and considered Jansen's commentary at least erroneous, U not heretical. Starting with the Sorbonne irenical theologian...


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