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102BOOK REVIEWS the current Uterature would still identify "Ignatius as soldier-saint, a man of steely wiU, an orderly administrator, coldly rational" (p. xix).WhUe chaUenging this characterization bears repetition, it hardly seems new ground. Nevertheless , the book, whUe serving primarily as a work of spirituality, is not without value for historians. ConweU divides his work into three parts, reflecting the three parts ofthe discernment process:"(1) gathering data . . . , (2) making the decision, (3) seeking confirmation of the decision" (p. 28).The first part provides the most of interest to the historian. ConweU's forte is the explanation of the theological context of the various terms used in the text.The best example comes in Chapter II,where he treats of the first companions under the rubric of "pauperes Christi sacerdotes " (p. 55ff). He does English readers a service by summarizing an important work on this pubUshed in French by Michel Dortel-Claudot. He also draws much of value concerning the priestly option of Ignatius from a work in Spanish by Luis de Diego.The most interesting part of ConweU's analysis is his discussion of "why sacerdotes rather than presbyterosV (pp. 73-75). After discussing the impUcations of the care of souls, he returns to poverty as key to understanding Ignatius' view of a reformed priesthood. In support he quotes the wUl of Faustina de Jancolini (p. 73). Had he gone but a few lines further in the wUl he could have added that her ideal of reformed priest also included the observance of chastity:"no woman shaU ever enter into the house." ConweU is correct in placing the discernment of the first Jesuits in the context of Catholic reform movements of the sixteenth century. He mentions the Ursulines, Oratorians,Theatines, Capuchins, Barnabites, and Somaschans. Here he echoes Religious Orders of the Catholic Reformation, John OUn, and several others. Perhaps Impelling Spirit says too much from the starting point of a rather short and primitive document. StUl, ConweU has tapped into a growing area of research in early modern history; and contemporary spirituaUty wiU benefit from this. FatherAldama expressed a desire in 1981 that others would study the early Jesuit documents from various points ofview. ConweU has done this from the perspective of modern spirituality. Mark A. Lewis, SJ. fesuit Historical Institute Rome Civic Agendas and Religious Passion: Châlons-sur-Marne during the French Wars ofReligion, 1560-1594. By MarkW Konnert. [Sixteenth Century Essays & Studies. Volume XXXV] (KirksvUle, Missouri: Sixteenth Century Journal PubUshers. 1997. Pp. x, 182. $40.00.) With about 9,000 inhabitants in 1517, Châlons-sur-Marne ranked several notches down the urban hierarchy from the majority of those cities whose ex- BOOK REVIEWS103 perience of the Wars of Religion has recently been the subject of a growing corpus of local studies. Chalons was larger than Romans, famously studied by Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, but unlike Romans, nothing particularly noteworthy happened there. Although a modest Reformed church grew up, no violent clashes occurred between Protestants and Catholics. No Saint Bartholomew's Massacre took place.The city remained loyal to the crown in 1562. It likewise resisted the blandishments of the Catholic League, despite its location in Guisedominated Champagne. The idea of studying a smaller town is certainly a good one, for the mix ofthe poUtical forces was different in such towns from the larger cities that we know better. The very uneventfulness of Chalons' history also poses the interesting problem of why the city did not experience the kinds of internal conflicts that divided so many other locaUties. Unfortunately, Mark Konnert's attempt to resolve this problem rests on a slender amount of archival research, restricted above aU to the "Livres des conclusions" and financial records of the municipaUty . The first part of his two-part study, "Structures of Power," examines the history and functioning of Chalons' city government. Individual chapters explore the emergence of the municipality in the late Middle Ages; the composition of the city councU and the frequency of its assemblies; the chief disbursements of the municipal government; and the fiscal impact of the Wars of Religion. It emerges that Chalons was a city whose powerful bishops successfuUy defeated aU efforts to...


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