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BOOK REVIEWS101 contributions in this field are only part of a broader tradition among these Venetian authors. Logan argues that what is particularlyVenetian in their views on the duties of a bishop is their tendency to see episcopal office in terms of state service within theVenetian Empire.These writers were aU, in one respect or another, servants of the Venetian state. Logan admits, nevertheless, that he has "abandoned the attempt to define a distinctive tradition ofVenetian reUgious thought" (p. 514).That is because he sees the diversity Ln these writers as representative ofRenaissance CathoUcism. He recognizes that this rich diversity was eliminated when the "exploding universe " of reUgious thought began to implode. Logan does not date this "implosion " to the Counter-Reformation, as many of his writers are from that period. Rather, he argues that the loss of individuaUty in the culture of the upper clergy in Italy was the result of the reaction of the Church to the events of the French Revolution and the estabUshment of a Liberal state Ln Italy Ln the nineteenth century. In response to those perceived threats, he argues, the Church closed ranks and demanded greater uniformity of its personnel. Although his documentation does not seem to offer material for the discussion of nineteenthcentury ItaUan history, Logan has shown the diversity of the early modern clergy ofVenice. Paul V Murphy University ofSan Francisco Impelling Spirit: Revisiting a Founding Experience: 1539, Ignatius ofLoyola and His Companions. An Exploration into the Spirit and Aims ofthe Society ofJesus as Revealed in the Founders' Proposed Papal Letter Approving the Society. By Joseph E Conwell, SJ. (Chicago: Loyola Press. 1997. Pp. xxxU, 585. $24.95.) At first glance Impelling Spirit by Joseph ConweU appears to be much ado about very Uttle. ConweU spends 421 pages (excluding notes and bibUography) examining the first draft of the papal brief founding the Society of Jesus.The document itseU takes up only four pages of the Monumenta Ignatiana, including introduction and notes; and the best-known commentary on the Formula of the Institute, that ofAntonio Aldama, uses only 107 pages to analyze the first draft plus the two promulgated versions.AU ofthis for what some assert to be the only case in the history of the Society of Jesus of a canonically sanctioned communal discernment! But ConweU's purpose is broader than a simple historical analysis ofa foundational document. His work seeks a synthesis ofhistory and spirituaUty, taking seriously a critique of the latter for its lack of concern for the former. He discovers that "a paradigm shift is coming about in our understanding of Ignatian and Jesuit spirituality" (p. xix). From my own experience ofJesuit formation, and certainly in the most recent historiography of the Society of Jesus, the shift occurred some time ago. Only those unfamiUar with 102BOOK REVIEWS the current Uterature would still identify "Ignatius as soldier-saint, a man of steely wiU, an orderly administrator, coldly rational" (p. xix).WhUe chaUenging this characterization bears repetition, it hardly seems new ground. Nevertheless , the book, whUe serving primarily as a work of spirituality, is not without value for historians. ConweU divides his work into three parts, reflecting the three parts ofthe discernment process:"(1) gathering data . . . , (2) making the decision, (3) seeking confirmation of the decision" (p. 28).The first part provides the most of interest to the historian. ConweU's forte is the explanation of the theological context of the various terms used in the text.The best example comes in Chapter II,where he treats of the first companions under the rubric of "pauperes Christi sacerdotes " (p. 55ff). He does EngUsh readers a service by summarizing an important work on this pubUshed in French by Michel Dortel-Claudot. He also draws much of value concerning the priestly option of Ignatius from a work in Spanish by Luis de Diego.The most interesting part of ConweU's analysis is his discussion of "why sacerdotes rather than presbyteros?" (pp. 73-75). After discussing the impUcations of the care of souls, he returns to poverty as key to understanding Ignatius' view of a reformed priesthood. In support he quotes the wiU of Faustina de Jancolini (p. 73). Had he gone but a...


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