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322BOOK REVIEWS economic conditions that placed considerable resources at their disposal, did indeed form a"parish community" (p. 2), and were progressively more hemmed in by supervision from above after 1570. Another noteworthy virtue of this book is that the author includes extensive cross-referencing of the latest Uterature on simUar developments in the Continent, making this less parochial a study than such work sometimes is in England. L. R. Poos The Catholic University ofAmerica Die Erforschung des Konstanzer Konzils (1414-1418) in den letzten 100 Jahren. By Ansgar Frenken. [Annuarium Historiae ConcUiorum, 25. Jahrgang, Heft 1-2 (1993)] (Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöning. 1993.Pp. 512. DM 154,- paperback.) Frenken undertook a formidable task: to present in a monograph a history and an analysis of the past century of research on the CouncU of Constance as weU as an evaluation of the current state of research on this councU. Not aU readers may agree with some ofhis opinions,but there is a lot offascinating history to be had and many leads for those who would want to go further in their reading. He begins with the story of Heinrich Finke, who fathered modern research on Constance a century ago, the director of numerous dissertations of which thirty were on Constance. Finke's story was perhaps weU known to the German world but a good part was new to me, e.g., his struggles to achieve a university position as a professor of medieval history in the context where Prussian and Protestant domination saw a conflict between objective scholarship and CathoUc convictions.This dispute would recur in the American scene in this century. Once he had a position, Finke put out the prodigious Acta concilii Constanciensis and many other texts. Today scholars see a nineteenthcentury mentaUty in his work m that he cared more about getting texts out than about analysis and critique of the texts as though they would speak of themselves . Certainly, he made medieval conciliar studies a new area and a 'school' evolved from his many students who continued in his line of research, perhaps a bit too uncriticaUy. It is ironic that at the end of his Ufe in 1937 after decades of research and strong patriotism, aU his papers were seized by the Gestapo right after his death and have vanished. Frenken presents next a series of topics: research done on Constance in France and in Spain, the pecuUar interests of each group, and a number of key questions about the events connected with Constance. He looks at what happened before the councU, the disputes over who was the valid pope, the deposition dispute, and whether in each case there was a deposition or a resignation, and the theories and explanations of modern scholars. He shows that after Finke there was a hiatus in pubUcation until the event ofVatican CouncU II unleashed another flood of controversies and studies. One by one the critical is- BOOK REVIEWS323 sues on Constance are reviewed: Causa fidei—Jean Petit, John Hus, the Teutonic Knights and Poland; Causa reformationis—was Constance a success in achieving unity but a faUure on the reform issue; Vatican CouncU II and the changing perspectives on Constance; Haec Sancta reveals a plethora of views and interpretations.Throughout the book the major researchers, their contributions and ideas appear: HaUer,Valois,Buisson, Ulimann, CovüTe, Boockmann, Bartos , Heimpel, Fink, Loserth.Vöoght, Küng,Tierney, GUI, and Jedin to name but a few. Finaüy Frenken discusses the ongoing work of BrandmüUer and the other current scholars and the questions they are asking today. This is a valuable overview and a compendious compUation of bibUography on Constance. It is where one can start or refresh one's memory. It is not an easy read but well worth the effort.The bibUography alone will ensure its reputation and the desire to keep it handy. Thomas E. Morrissey State University ofNew York College at Fredonia, New York Beyond the Written Word: Preaching and Theology in the Florence ofArchbishop Antoninus 1427-1459- By Peter Francis Howard. [Istituto Nazionale di Studi sul Rinascimento: Quaderni di Rinascimento,YoI. XXVLTL] (Florence: Leo S. Olschki. 1995. Pp. xii, 300. Lire 60,000 paperback.) Among...


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