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BOOK REVIEWS741 cal movement. In this book Graham gives special attention to such themes as reUgious freedom, church and state, and the American nation. He deftly traces Schaffs thoughts on these topics in a way that informs our own understanding of these contemporary reUgious issues. Graham carefuUy explores the fuU Americanization of Schaff and his growing accommodation to America's dominant evangeUcal Protestantism in the context ofhis ecumenical dreams. Graham also shows that to more than the twentieth-century ecumenical movement, his IUe was prelude. His major dream was, however, of post-Protestant, postCatholic , and post-American universal cosmos—a worthy dream ofwhich to remind oneseU as weU as others. Graham's title is appropriate—cosmos in the chaos and, I would add, beyond the chaos. One of Schaffs students wrote in his private class notebook, "I came to know what life and history mean." Graham's presentation of Schaff has certainly captured the meaning of this student's remark. What reUgious Ufe and history meant to Schaff in the United States comes alive Ui this book. Graham presents Schaffs ideaUsm, historic awareness, hope, sensitivity to humankind and nature, and dream of world unity. In Philip Schaffs last pubUc speech in late L893 he urged brave visions and acts: "Before the reunion of Christendom can be accompUshed , we must expect providential events, new Pentecosts, new reformations —as great as any that have gone on before. The twentieth century has marvelous siuprises in store for the church and the world" (The Reunion of Christendom). In this present world of whiners and hard-nosed realists, we can thank God for some dreamers and their brave visions. Stephen Graham has done unique service Ui bringing together this presentation of PhUip Schaffs dream of cosmos for America. George H. Shrtver Georgia Southern University, Statesboro Canadian Pro-Choice vs. Pro-Life:Abortion and the Courts in Canada. By F. L. Morton. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. 1992. Pp. 371 . $19-95 paperback.) This highly readable book is largely an examination of the cross-dueling poUtical careers of two controversial Canadians. Throughout the L970's and '80's Henry Morgentaler was Canada's leading apostle of abortion freedom, and Joseph Borowski the nation's foremost proponent of fetal rights.Jewish, agnostic , and fearless, Morgentaler first burst upon the national scene Ui the early 1970's when he defied Canada's newly reformed abortion law by opening several elective abortion clinics in the Montreal area. Enacted by the House of Commons in L969, the new law authorized that abortions could be performed 742BOOK REVIEWS for broadly therapeutic reasons in accredited hospitals after approval by a therapeutic abortion committee. WhUe generaUy permissive in its appUcation, the 1969 law by no means provided aU Canadian women equal and unencumbered access to abortion, and Morgentaler was determined to do everything possible to force its repeal. Borowski, a working-class CathoUc and long-time labor activist, was just as passionately opposed to the 1969 legislation but for quite different reasons. In his view, the law was entirety too lenient: it afforded Uttle more than nommai protection for fetal Ufe, and it was a glaring affront to the reUgious convictions of miUions of Canadians. Borowski registered his opposition by undergoing a lengthy hunger strike; he withheld his federal income taxes as protest against the pubUc funding of abortions, and, as was also the case with Morgentaler, he paid the price of his convictions with several stmts in prison. In the end, the battle between Morgentaler and Borowski over abortion was played out on virgin constitutional territory. OnAprU L6, L982,a new Charter of Rights and Freedoms was adopted by ParUament as part of Canada's Constitution Act. Although the charter was sUent on the question of fetal rights, Borowski beUeved that it stül provided ammunition for an assault upon Canada's abortion law, and Ui 1983 he attempted to persuade a Saskatchewan court that the 1969 law, with its provisions for legal abortion, was at odds with the charter's declaration that "everyone has the right to Ufe."Although a parade of scientific witnesses—including Sir WilUam LUey and Jérôme Lejeune—testified on Borowski's behatf, the court finaUy...


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