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BOOK REVIEWS729 Within a weU-conceived conceptual framework Hammond creates a vivid representation of the cultural life of Baroque Rome, and provides essential information regarding the source and administration ofthe Barberini famUy's revenues . Members ofthe dynasty are nicely differentiated in the short biographies of each, and a good genealogical chart aUows the reader to disentangle the confusion resulting from the frequently repeated Christian names of the clan, aU of which is necessary to understand the later rivahies among the papal nephews. The chapters dealing specificaUy with opera offer a comprehensive and clearly articulated discussion of practical aspects of theatrical production: the responsibiüties of the corago, definition of rehearsal time, description of performance spaces,and the binding tradition ofoperatic conventions ofthe period. This is a volume that can be read from cover to cover or easüy consulted Like a reference work. The abundant footnotes, extensive bibliography, and comprehensive appendix alone are weU worth the price of the book and offer much grist for future research. The organization suffers somewhat from the occasional repetition of materials in different parts of the book, and one might wish that it were as rich in musical examples as it is in photographs. Perhaps that very imbalance between the visual and the musical only underscores the author 's early contention that the spectacle received the Uon's share of attention. But these are smaU criticisms fer outweighed by Hammond's masterful handling ofan impressive amount ofinformation. Music and Spectacle in Baroque Rome is a fine achievement, a significant and authoritative contribution to the history of music. CyrillaBarr The Catholic University ofAmerica Late Modern European "A Nation ofBeggars"? Priests, People, and Politics in Famine Ireland, 18461852 . By Donal A. Kerr. (New York: Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press. 1994. Pp. xiv, 370. $65.00.) This sequel to the author's Peel, Priests and Politics: Sir Robert Peel's Administration and the Roman Catholic Church in Ireland, 1841-1846, might alternatively have been entitled Russell, Priests and Politics. It is essentiaUy a study of the Irish hierarchy's politics during the administration of Lord John RusseU. For Kerr, RusseU is a tragic figure who looked upon his accession to the premiership in 1846 as an opportunity to make the Irish equal citizens within the United Kingdom through a well-thought-out strategy which included a generous-minded plan to endow the CathoUc Church without the usual demand for a government role in episcopal appointments. This initiative could 730BOOK REVLEWS hardly have come at a worse juncture in the whole history ofthe Anglo-Irish relationship . The empirical core of the work is a careful reconstruction from correspondence in ecclesiastical archives of the process by which the victory of the ultranationaUst Archbishop MacHale of Tuam over the concUiatory Archbishop Murray of Dublin was consummated in the appointment of the ultramontane Paul CuUen first as Archbishop of Armagh and then as successor to Murray upon the latter's death in 1852. It is hard to imagine anything RusseU might have done to avert this outcome, which by itseU would have been fatal to his hopes. Perhaps more central to Kerr's evaluation of RusseU are two developments in which RusseU's agency is more clearly at stake: the Famine and the "papal aggression" controversy. In his treatment ofthe Famine,Kerr goes beyond his usual analysis ofhigh ecclesiastical poUtics to examine at length the attitudes and behavior of ordinary parish clergy during the calamity. It is not hard to see how the experiences he recounts—especiaUy certain British attempts to blame priests for crimes committed against landlords—would have soured the clergy on concUiation as they poisoned popular opinion for generations. Interestingly, however, Kerr does not blame RusseU, whose aversion to state intervention is often seen as contributing to the scale of the catastrophe. He regards "Black '47" as probably beyond the power of any government to avert, and in his assessment of RusseU's motives he places a good deal ofweight on a passage from one ofhis letters: It is quite true that landlords in England would not like to be shot like hares and partridges . But neither does any landlord in England turn out fifty persons at once...


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