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698book reviews theological dispute and Cajetan's role in it. In the course of tracing the paths that led to the encounter and the detaUs of the meeting itself, Morerod reveals the extent to which political as weU as ecclesiastical concerns stood behind the Dominican's legation to the Diet. Just as carefuUy, Morerod provides a sensitive analysis of Luther's own progress to Augsburg, which presents Ui detaU the main points of the Resolutions on Indulgences, the Sermon on Penance, and the Sermon on Excommunication. Although Morerod makes Uttle use of recent Luther scholarship in the historical introduction, he knows Luther's own texts thoroughly. Morerod's knowledge of Luther and of modern Luther scholarship is fuUy in evidence in the theological analysis that makes up the bulk of the second volume . With admirable clarity Morerod organizes his exposition around the three central points of the debate: indulgences and purgatory, the efficacy of the sacrament of penance, and excommunication. WhUe impressively knowledgeable about the history of these doctrines, Morerod does not sacrifice clarity in order to display his erudition. He provides, instead, reUable guidance through the problems which precipitated the Reformation. Two distracting features caU for attention. Both the historical and theological introductions are broken up by numbered topical headings, which delay and bewUder the reader more than they help. Not even the most organized reader can make sense of a section number like "V2.," and many of these segments could have benefited from further exploration. In the translation as well, Morerod seems overly eager to display the precision of his working habits, for he sets brackets around aU words not expUcit in the Latin text. Thus one finds, for example, "Et [l'Eglise romaine enseigne aussi] que [c'est] par mode de suffrage [que le Siège apostolique] fait parvenir l'indulgence condédée pour remettre les peines des âmes [qui sont] au purgatoire . . ."(p. 293). Readers who know Latin wUl recognize the ???ef?????ß; those who do not wUl not benefit from being told what is expUcit and what implicit in the Latin text. Morerod's edition of Cajetan's Opuscula is a model of learning and editorial care, and a substantial contribution to our understanding of the beginnings of the Reformation and of Cajetan's thought. It should stimulate study and encourage editions of other texts. Ralph Keen University ofIowa The Scandinavian Reformation: From Evangelical Movement to Institutionalisation ofReform. Edited by Ole Peter Grell. (NewYork: Cambridge University Press. 1995. Pp. xi, 218. $54.95.) This slim volume consists of six essays, two on Denmark/Norway from 1520 to c. 1660, two on Sweden/Finland from 1520 to the centenary of GustavVasa's BOOK REVIEWS699 election Ui 1621, one on the CathoUc Church Ui sixteenth-century Scandinavia, and one on faith, superstition, and witchcraft during the Scandinavian Reformation . The editor has provided a brief introduction. The text also includes one map and an index. Unfortunately, there is no bibUography; whUe relevant secondary sources are Usted Ui the notes, recent work is most definitely underrepresented . It is difficult to understand why this volume was pubUshed and who should be considered its intended audience. The four essays on the kingdoms of Denmark /Norway and Sweden/Finland, whUe soUd for the most part, are on the handbook level and, although more detaUed in their presentation of events and personaUties, dupUcate coverage of the Scandinavian Reformation avaUable Ui English in two other coUections pubUshed by Cambridge in paperback, and therefore more suitable for classroom use.1 Nor, in terms of the period and area covered, do they add significantly to the overview of the Reformation Ui Scandinavia and the Baltic contributed by N. K. Andersen to Volume II of the New Cambridge Modern History.2 And for bibUography, the entry on Scandinavia Ui Reformation Europe: A Guide to Research is far more extensive.5 Moreover, even when considered as introductions to tiieU subject, these essays faU short, especiaUy because they frequently faU—perhaps because of space constraints —to define key terms and concepts, especiaUy theological ones. "Christian humanism," for example, is a term that recurs often Ln the coUection, yet is never explained adequately enough to...


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