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690BOOK REVIEWS of focus from Norway and Denmark to Sweden, are evident. The apparent popularity of pUgrimage within this circle may perhaps be explained by its use as a trade route and as a form of secular punishment, not merely in fulfillment of a religious vow. In many ways, this work proves the close conformity of Scandinavian popular reUgion to that found Ui other areas, although the wider use of lots in determining which cult would be more effective, the stress on the DevU as a cause of difficulties, or the detaUed descriptions of possession and exorcism may be perhaps regarded as pecuUarly Scandinavian. Krötzl's work is particularly rich Ui the citation of relevant sources,which enables the reader to confirm the author's observations, and with graphs, which provide clear visuaUzation of the quantitative data, without being intrusive. Its systematic structure permits easy use as a reference source. Michael Goodich University ofHaifa Religion paysanne et religion urbaine en Toscane (c. 1250-c. 1450). By Charles M. De la Roncière. [Variorum CoUected Studies Series, CS 458.] (Brookfield, Vermont: Variorum, Ashgate Publishing Co. 1994. Pp. ?, 319. $95.00.) The nine essays collected in this volume represent Charles de la Roncière's contributions over the past twenty or so years to the field of religious history. A social and economic historian, de Ia Roncière uses mostly notarial records to discover the contours of the religion lived by monks,friars, merchants,vUlagers, and rural folk, in thirteenth-, fourteenth-, and fifteenth-century Tuscany. The specific problems he studies are: the place of confraternities Ur the reUgious framework of Florence and contado; the influence of the Franciscans Ui the Florentine countryside; the pastoral orientation of the clergy; the role of folklore Ui rural reUgious practice; and the faith of the merchant. In each study de la Ronci ère explores the intersection ofdie institutional church and popular mentaUties. Two essays in particular merit further discussion as they are Ulustrative of de la Roncière's methodology and of the range of his questions. The first, "L'Influence des Franciscains dans le campagne de Florence au XIVe siècle (12801360 )"(essay II,originaUy published Ui 1975), examines the depth and duration of Franciscan influence Ui the Florentine countryside over two generations. Analyzing naming practices and testamentary bequests, he finds that older generations included the friars only in their wiUs, and thereby acknowledged the friars,yet without having to incorporate them into their daUy Uves.Younger generations , by contrast, did just that, as they opted to name their own children after Francis and other mendicants. These dtfferences, suggests de la Roncière, are symptomatic of dUfering postures toward the rural church. Restive within an old and inflexible ecclesiastical framework, the young accepted the newer BOOK REVIEWS691 orders readUy into their Uves, whereas their parents and grandparents continued to endorse more heavUy the old organizations in which they themselves had been raised. This is one explanation. But now, given the findings of subsequent studies on the friars in central and northern Italy,we can and should wonder what other social and poUtical factors might also have contributed to this disparity. StiU more important for de la Roncière, though, is that these generational differences contributed to what he sees as the late and relatively weak influence ofthe Franciscans. To account for this impression, de la Roncière looks to larger structures such as the economy and the envUonment. He also turns to the friars themselves, for whUe they ventured into the suburbs of Florence, according to him, they rarely settled, or even visited the more sparsely populated countryside beyond. In a later piece from 1988, "Aspects de la ReUgiosité Populate en Toscane" (essay Vf), de la Roncière frees himself of the institutional setting. Here he focuses instead on the reUgion of the countryside, and he turns to a wide range of sources such as sermons, wUls, folklore, rappresentazioni, and inquisitors' records to discover the nature of that reUgion. Evaluating his findings not simply against the norms of the Church, he concludes that the Church and its brand of Christianity did indeed penetrate the countryside, albeit Ui a limited way. For the Uved religion...


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