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BOOK REVIEWS689 temporary scholars. Likewise welcome is her straightforward presentation of aU the relevant information about Trier 61 ; the book fiUs a large lacuna in scholarship . But the archaism also means that crucial contemporary questions about how culturaUy-diverse audiences (such as that at eighth-century Echternach) understand visual signs are not weU discussed because Netzer lacks a sophisticated theory about cultural interplay against which to measure her historical evidence. Likewise absent from Cultural Interplay is the methodological sophistication and seU-awareness typical of the new art history. Thanks, however, to her careful presentation of the Trier Gospels as a physical object, Netzer's book wiU be indispensable to those who choose to tackle the more difficult problems raised by this fascinating manuscript. William J. Ddíbold Reed College Pilger, Mirakel undAlltag. Formen des Verhaltens im skandinavischen Mittelalter (12.-15- Jahrhundert). By Christian Krötzl. [Studia Histórica, 46.] (Helsinki: Suomen HistoriaUinen Seura. 1994. Pp. 393· Paperback.) Recent years have witnessed a flourishing of research into medieval popular piety, largely based on a reading of contemporary coUections of saints' Uves and miracles. Christian Krötzl's current monograph is a well-focussed example of the genre and may be taken as a model to others ofthe method to be employed by those undertaking regional studies of popular piety. AU of the issues reflected in fifteen Scandinavian miracle coUections from the twelfth to the fifteenth centuries are dealt with in a systematic way, beginning with a detaUed survey of the sources, the current state of research, the notion of miracle, and the legal status of the pilgrim, and continuing with an analytical breakdown of miracle genres and the constituent elements of the miracle. After noting the contemporary narratives of Scandinavian pilgrims to such European-wide pUgrimage sites as Santiago, Rome, Aachen, WUsnack, and Jerusalem, he focuses on cults devoted to fourteen local saints from King Knut of Denmark to Catherine ofVadstena, along with the cult ofthe miracle-working statue of the Descent from the Cross found in Stockholm, taking note of the increased appearance ofthanksgiving pUgrimages and ofthe performance ofmiracles at some distance from the site of the relics. Krötzl has also made an effort to locate persons of Scandinavian origin reported in other miracle coUections and pUgrimage narratives, and foreigners (most of north German background) at Scandinavian sites. Because of their relatively late date, these Scandinavian miracles were reported under the stringent notarial rules laid down in canon and Roman law, thus ensuring considerable reliabiUty as a source for everyday life and the social history ofnorthern Europe in the central and later Middle Ages. The growing integration of this region into European Christendom, accompanied by a change 690book reviews of focus from Norway and Denmark to Sweden, are evident. The apparent popularity of pUgrimage within this circle may perhaps be explained by its use as a trade route and as a form of secular punishment, not merely in fulfillment of a religious vow. In many ways, this work proves the close conformity of Scandinavian popular reUgion to that found in other areas, although the wider use of lots in determining which cult would be more effective, the stress on the DevU as a cause of difficulties, or the detaUed descriptions of possession and exorcism may be perhaps regarded as pecuUarly Scandinavian. Krötzl's work is particularly rich in the citation of relevant sources,which enables the reader to confirm the author's observations, and with graphs, which provide clear visuaUzation of the quantitative data, without being intrusive. Its systematic structure permits easy use as a reference source. Michael Goodich University ofHaifa Religion paysanne et religion urbaine en Toscane (c. 1250-c. 1450). By Charles M. De la Roncière. [Variorum CoUected Studies Series, CS 458.] (Brookfield, Vermont: Variorum, Ashgate Publishing Co. 1994. Pp. ?, 319. $95.00.) The nine essays collected in this volume represent Charles de la Roncière's contributions over the past twenty or so years to the field of religious history. A social and economic historian, de Ia Roncière uses mostly notarial records to discover the contours of the religion lived by monks,friars, merchants,vUlagers, and rural folk, in thirteenth-, fourteenth-, and fifteenth...


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