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BOOK REVIEWS 531 After a brief stay in Bamberg, Marianus and his companions, who were on a pilgrimage to Rome, decided in 1070 to remain in Regensburg. King Henry IV took under his protection in 1089 the community of Irish hermits who lived at the church of Weih Sankt Peter. A second community formed at St. James, to which HenryV granted a charter in 1 1 12, andWeih Sankt Peter became a priory of St. James. The foundation of the two houses was part of an antipapal reform movement sponsored by the bishop and burghers of Regensburg. A variety of patrons then called upon monks from St. James to establish Irish monasteries: Erfurt by an imperial ministerial (1136); Würzburg by the bishop (1138); Nuremberg by King Conrad III (1140); Constance by the bishop (1142); Eichst ätt by the cathedral provost (ll48/49);Vienna by Duke Henry II of Austria (1155/61); and Memmingen by Duke WeIfVI (1178/81). In addition, the congregation had two Irish priories at Cashel and Ross Carberry, which recruited novices for the German houses; a settlement in Kiev that survived until the Mongol onslaught; and a priory in Kelheim, where the monks prayed for Duke Louis of Bavaria, who had been murdered in 1231. The monks were dependent on Ireland for donations as well as recruits, and supported themselves by copying manuscripts or by working in episcopal or ducal chancelleries. Pope Lucius III first referred in 1 185 to the congregation of Irish monks under the regimen of Regensburg. Ultimately, this last wave of Irish monasticism must be judged a failure (the smaller abbeys at Memmingen, Eichstätt, and Constance were abandoned already in the later Middle Ages) because of the difficulty of attracting novices in Ireland for an outmoded religious ideal and the inability ofcloistered Irish monks to compete with the friars in German cities. This book, Flachenecker's Habilitationsschrift, reads like one. The most obscure scholarly arguments are carefully weighed and there are seemingly irrelevant digressions on such topics as western relations with Kiev or Austrian annals. Nevertheless, anyone who is interested in Irish or German monasticism should read the book. I for one learned a lot. John B. Freed Illinois State University Le diocèse d'Arras de 1093 au milieu du XTV' siècle. Recherches sur la vie religieuse dans le nord de la France au Moyen Âge. By Bernard Delmaire. 2 vols. [Mémoires de la Commission départementale d'Histoire et d'Archéologie du Pas-de-Calais, tome XXXI.] (Arras, 1994. Pp. 408; 409-640. 350F.) This extraordinary work is a revised principal dissertation by a professor of medieval history at the Université Charles de Gaulle-Lille III. He is already well known for his many studies ofArtois and for his service to the Revue du Nord. What he presents in this work is material in many ways quite different from that found in other examinations of French dioceses of the period. This is true prin- 532 BOOK REVIEWS cipally for two reasons: its location which often makes the diocesan activities more like what is found in the Low Countries or the Rhineland than elsewhere in France and his desire to focus as much as possible on the laity and parish life. The work is divided into four parts (volume one) and four appendices, the first of which is a 150-page listing of the approximately 500 parishes and chapels of the period (volume two). The first two parts examine the structure of the diocese. After sketching the geography, economic life, and relatively dense population, with over thirty per cent living in towns, the first part traces the restoration of the diocese in 1093- He suggests that this occurred in substantial part because of the desire of the reformed papacy to diminish imperial power. The division of the diocese of Cambrai achieved this end, for the western portion,centered on Arras,was in the French lands ofthe count ofFlanders. The second part, in four chapters, is one ofthe most ambitious and valuable, for it examines the almost 400 parishes by looking at such topics as size,the role of lay nobles or religious houses, the tithe, and the...


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