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REVIEWS THEOLOGICAL DICTIONARY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT. VOL. 9. Edited by G. Johannes Botterweck, Helmer Ringgren, Heinz-Josef Faby. Pp. xxvi + 563. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1998. Cloth, $48.00. This is the ninth volume of the authorized and unabridged translation of the Theologisclres Worterbuch zum Alten Testamell1. David Green has given us a very readable translation of TWAT of the biblical Hebrew and Aramaic words appearing from miirad to lliiqa. The articles are written from a variety of religious backgrounds in several parts of the world and from multiple perspectives theologically. As in the previous eight volumes, the Theological Dictionary oj the Old Testamell1 (TOOT) treats the main Hebrew or Aramaic entry, then any known cognates or semantically related lexemes. One can expect to find a discussion of the word's etymology (including a discussion of comparative semitics when such are available), a listing of the distribution of the word's occurrences in the Old Testament, characteristic contexts of its syntactical usages, a discussion of its theological significance, any parallels in the Septuagint or Dead Sea Scrolls, and finally a bibliography. If there are any parallelisms to rabbinic usages or uses found in the apocrypha or the pseudepigrapha, they are noted as well. The longest and most detailed of the eighty-three entries of these words running form miirad to niiqa is the theologically sensitive word lIephesh. Twenty-three pages (pp. 497-519) are dedicated to discussing this one term. Included is an interesting "Excursus: The Translation •Soul'" (pp. 508-517). This discussion by H. Seebass covers the usages in context quite well, but one is surprised to see Ps 49:16 (15) "But God will redeem (piid{j) my life (nephesh) from the grave" receive no more than just a mere listing among those uses which have God as their subject. Surely, here is a theologically significant text in a major excursus if there ever was one! The discussion of the term maSsii'J. with its alternate meanings of "burden" or "utterance," is also worthy of special note as an indicator of TDOT's balance and theological usefulness. H.-P. Milller properly notes "The overwhelming preponderance of disaster oracles may be due to overtones of the meaning of 'burden,'" but he goes on to note that one cannot argue against the meaning "utterance" in every case for that would destroy the very contrast Jeremiah was making in Jer 23:33 ("utterance") versus Jer 23:34, 36, and 38 ("burden"). His point is well taken. Given the fact that such a wide variety of writers and perspectives are included within one volume, there is hardly room for attempting to determine a collected point of view or emphasis. To the degree that the evidence pointed Hebrew Studies 44 (2003) 224 Reviews to fairly represents not just what the selected word meant, but rather what the word meant within the sentence, to that degree we are given a rich resource with which to begin our work. It is in this manner that much light can be shed on our work in the Hebrew and Aramaic text. Surely, as with similar wordbook dictionaries, this is a most ambitious undertaking. But it is better to have attempted it and to have others after years of usage point to marginal caveats here and there than it would have been never to have had this amazing head start in the collection of linguistic data as formed by usage and syntax. Walter C. Kaiser, Jr. Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary South Hamilton, MA 01982 THEOLOGICAL DICTIONARY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT. VOL. 11. Edited by G. Johannes Botterweck, Helmer Ringgren. Heinz-Josef Fabry. Pp. xxiv +615. Grand Rapids. Mich.: Eerdmans, 2001. Cloth, $50.00. This is the eleventh volume in Tire Theological Dictionary of the Old Testamellf, the ongoing English translation of the Theologisc/re Worterbuc/r zum Alten Testamellf. TDOT II is an unabridged translation of fascicles 1-6 of the sixth volume of the Wiirterbuclr, including articles on eighty-three terms from nl1-c·~~. The German edition, published in a series of eye-straining volumes. is formatted in double columns with abbreviated bibliographic citations integrated into the text. Fortunately, in the process of...


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