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Hebrew Studies 39 (1998) 218 Reviews into English is not the test of the semantics of the language from which we are translating. As to Endo's suggestion that preview and summary uses of wyyqtl's are off the line, I have no great quarrel with him here. I do want to suggest, however, that storylines are emic structures in the language where they are found, and verbs of storyline fonn may be expanded in usage in one language as compared to another language-so that storyline must be defmed anew for each language and is not entirely subject to a general semantic calculus. The latter concerns are etic and provide our initial analytic insights but do not dictate the fonn of the final emic analysis in a language. Some languages are more parsimonious in regard to what they put on the storyline, and other languages are more profligate in this regard. Consequently , storyline fonns may be used in one language at a point where they are not possible in another language. At any rate, the wyyqtl fonns are the backbone of Hebrew storytelling and correlate for the most part with what is represented as punctiliar sequential "happenings." Some of these backbone fonns emerge as non-backbone in English, where, for example, they are often rendered best as temporal clauses. This, I believe is apropos to Endo's discussion in "The Temporal Clause with waYYIQTOL." Such clauses can be considered to be on the storyline in Hebrew but off the storyline in English. For the analysis of aspect in verbal fonns, Endo uses a diagram in which he discusses plus or minus values for each verb in each example cited in respect to the following parameters: perfective, complete, stative, fientive, durative, punctual, and progressive. These diagrams, with the accompanying commentary, may be one of the most interesting features of his work. Here the influence of Bernard Comrie is evident. Also in the first chapter, Endo provides a helpful summary of the system of the Hebrew verb as presented in the writings of a variety of scholars. Robert E. Longacre University of Texas, Arlington Dallas, TX 75236 LEVITICUS. By Philip J. Budd. The New Century Bible Commentary. pp. xxiii + 390. Grand Rapids. MI: Eerdmans. 1996. Philip J. Budd, lecturer and tutor at Westminster College, Oxford, England, has provided a concise and useful commentary on the Book of Hebrew Studies 39 (1998) 219 Reviews Leviticus. He notes the lack of attention often given the book in popular circles and is candid about the ambiguities of historical context and the presuppositions about purity systems that are foreign to western readers. It is for this very reason, the author argues, that the book deserves serious study, since these same ambiguities reflect the enigmatic character of human motivation and experience. After a select but representative bibliography, the author deals with prolegomena: text, content, authorship and redaction, sources, literary forms and style. He also examines anthropological, historical, and theological topics related to holiness and sacrifice. Intentionally, the work does not attempt to detail a sustained inquiry into these introductory matters, but seeks to grapple with the broad arguments of the generally held positions and those who take exception to them. His ultimate judgments are prudent and well informed. The study benefits from an ability of the author to glean the strengths of variant positions, presenting conclusions that are carefully researched. The author's overview of current research on the priestly composition of Leviticus affirms an early post-exilic date of P between 539 and 516 BeE. These priestly writers constructed a narrative based on an existing written tradition and inserted substantial legal and cultic material which revised and supplemented the earlier narrative material. Budd identifies several of the major component parts of a legal and cultic nature which were inserted into the existing tradition: a narrative thread (8:1-10:20), procedures for the Day of Atonement (16:1-34), a large section on offerings {1:1-7:38), a Manual of Purity (11:1-15:33), the Holiness Code (17:126 :46), and a final chapter (27:1-34). The introduction also includes a helpful overview of the...


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