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200 SAIS REVIEW Having set out these basic principles, Shelp discusses the possible approaches for establishing the principles. This is the part of his book that should be read by trade negotiators or services ideologues (should there exist any) who may call for a Tokyo Round on services immediately. Shelp is thoroughly practical in advising that the road ahead for service negotiations, if they are to be successful, is a long and tedious one, beginning with laborious data and information collection, utilizing all bilateral avenues, and working through existing multilateral institutions (especially the GATT and OECD). During this process, Shelp says service disputes will arise and attract countries' attention, forcing them to analyze service trade problems. Only after a long evolutionary process, developing from information collecting and analysis of bilateral disputes, will there come a call for international negotiations to devise multilateral rules on services. But such a call should eventually, Shelp believes, emanate from the United States as the historic world leader of liberal trade and resting on the support of the highest political levels of the participating governments. This returns to Shelp's original point in his first chapter: the service sector has yet to translate its economic power into political clout. As it does so, interest in service negotiations and service trade and/or investment disputes will heighten, leading perhaps inevitably to a round of international service negotiations. The first tentative step in this direction occurred in the fall of 1982, when the GATT membernations agreed at the GATT ministerial to collect information that individual countries would submit to the GATT on services trade. The major flaw of Shelp's book, which he recognizes in his introduction, is its generality. This stems in part from the conceptual nature of the book, in part from its global scope, and in part from the lack of data in the area. The level of generality would not trouble a reader experienced in the service sector or in trade policy, because he or she would have a catalogue of specific problems against which to fit Shelp's work. A student new to the area, however, would be advised to acquaint himself with a number of case studies—such as the U.S. Section 301 cases on unfair trade practices in services—before or in conjunction with reading the book. Finally, this reviewer finds in Shelp's book an interesting tension between the theoretical and the pragmatic. Shelp reviews classical economics in search of a theoretical framework for services, while he looks to the GATT for a set of principles to apply to services. Yet in both these searches for an ideal theory or set of rules, Shelp is frustrated. Hence, his concluding chapter is eminently pragmatic, drawn, no doubt, from his years of experience in business, on the Hill, and in association with international institutions. We may have to wait for an author with less political insight and realism than Shelp to create a Wealth of Nations or a Principles ofPolitical Economy and Taxation for services. Meanwhile, in Beyond Industrialization: Ascendancy of the Global Service Economy, Ron Shelp has given the trade negotiating community, economists, lawyers, students, professors , and international civil servants and business executives a seminal and highly useful work in an area that will only grow in importance. War Powers ofthe President and Congress: Who Holds the Arrows and the Olive Branchi By W. Taylor Reveley, 3d. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1981. 394 pp. $15.95. BOOK REVIEWS 201 The War Powers: Its Implementation in Theory and Practice. By Robert F. Turner, Philadelphia: Foreign Policy Research Institute, 1983. 147 pp. $4.95. The House and Foreign Policy: The Irony of Congressional Reform. By Charles W. Whalen, Jr. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1982. 207 pp. $18.95. Reviewed by Edward Weisband, Distinguished Teaching Professor, State University of New York at Binghamton. Professor Weisband has aho published a number of books relating to U.S. foreign policy. On October 12, 1983, President Reagan signed SenateJoint Resolution 159, the Multinational Force in Lebanon Resolution, thus providing specific statutory authorization for deployment of U.S. Marines in Lebanon. Americans would not have to wait long to realizejust how...


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