- How to Catch a Robot Rat: When Biology Inspires Innovation
As this highly informative book shows through numerous examples, it is not quite as easy as it seems to catch rats, robotic or otherwise. The authors use the concept of the rat (as a clever, cunning and highly intelligent natural entity) metaphorically, to show that nature does not give up her "design" secrets easily. Many researchers, especially those working in artificial intelligence, have found this out the hard way.
How to Catch a Robot Rat: When Biology Inspires Innovation was first published in 2008 in French as La bionique: Quand la science imite la Nature. Susan Emanuel has translated this edition published in 2010. Even though some of the details are quite scientific, the text flows beautifully and is suitable for the general reader as well as specialists. The book provides a thorough though brief grounding in the history of technological objects and systems, the current state of research and possible future developments.
The book (which is devoted to the new bionics) has three sections followed by a conclusion, bibliography, notes and index. There are numerous quality black-and-white illustrations, together with a glossy central color plate section.
Part 1, "Structures, Processes, Materials," describes some of the many technological achievements inspired by natural structures, processes and materials. The discussion moves effortlessly back and forth through the history of biomimetic inventions from the earliest times to the present.
Part 2, "Behaviors," explains, "one field of research (that is of ancient inspiration but has been prospering for a few years): the concept of autonomous robots inspired by animals and their behavior—what is commonly called 'bioinspired robotics'" (p. xii).
Part 3, "Hybrids," examines work whose goal it is to hybridize natural and artificial systems. It looks at neuroprostheses and endoprostheses. The combination of these systems is meant to help, for example, quadriplegic persons to control machines such as wheelchairs.
This book is literally jam-packed with information; there is no long-winded superfluous padding, as the book moves along at a rapid pace similar to that of current global research in the field of robotics and bionics. The issue of ethics is briefly touched on, more as a caution as to the way we should proceed rather than an in-depth discussion as to the full development of ethical guidelines.
Although it is certainly not the purpose of this book, the area of ethics research is in need of urgent attention and development so as to keep up with the speed of inventions by companies whose motives are not necessarily or always for the "good of the many"! There have been some tentative moves in producing guidelines for research and "Rights of Robots" by countries such as Japan and Korea. The authors quip about the current debate over same-sex marriages becoming insignificant compared to when a human wants to marry a humanoid robot. The humanoid robots Repliee Q2 and the Clone of Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro—both developed by Ishiguro at Osaka University—have silicone skin, multiple sensors, respiratory movement, facial expressions and hand and arm movements and can converse with a human. Ishiguro made his clone so as to occupy his office when he traveled overseas! (p. 136). Guillot and Meyer not only discuss metaphoric rats but also have developed a real robotic rat, Psikharpax, in their own laboratories. They are attempting to answer a question neurobiologists have not yet been able to answer, which concerns the exact mechanisms (of a neuronal nature) that enable the selection by rodents of different navigational strategies (p. 124). As a whimsical aside, and because we are trying to catch rats, it is interesting that many laboratories use rats for research and the spelling encodes this—labo_rat_ories!
One of this book's greatest virtues is the balanced approach taken by the authors. Rather than "values" laden commentary, the approach is more objective reporting, leaving it to the reader to...