Vlahos eloquently enhances Harsh's thesis that Penelope recognises Odysseus as early as in Odyssey book 19. While accepting the viability of this interpretation, this article attempts to explore some details of Vlahos's argument which call for clarification. It agrees with Vlahos in that Odysseus's declared intention to "provoke further" Penelope and the maidservants (Od. 19.45) compels us to look for the first occasion on which Odysseus "provoked" them. However, it does not agree with his assumption that the first occasion is when the beggar-Odysseus refuses to come to Penelope when summoned, but rather argues that it is when he provokesAntinous to cause disturbance which in turn attracts the attention of Penelope and her maidservants. This article also challenges Vlahos' newly proposed interpretations of some passages such as Melantho's "mega ergon" (Od. 19.91-92), Telemachus's objection to Odysseus's plan (Od. 16.311-12) and the implication of Penelope's death wish in the morning of the bow contest (Od. 20.60-90).


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pp. 122-130
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