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Since 2001, PeacePlayers International has helped over 50,000 young people overcome deep ethnic, religious or social divides in their communities through basketball. The authors describe PPI's theory of change, which draws on Gordon Allport's "Contact Hypothesis," Muzafer Sherif's notion of "superordinate goals," and John Paul Lederach's arguments in favor of relational approaches to conflict transformation. PPI has identified four key program components as integral to its success: local leadership; a balance between sport and educational content in programming; maintaining frequent, long-term integration; and structures for internal leadership development. Long-term monitoring and evaluation; securing consistent, flexible funding; and coping with political change outside the control of the programs remain challenges.