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282CIVIL WAR HISTORY by evidence. And her speculations as to the impact of the war on future female understandings are framed as "perhapses." But Patriotic Toil is an important book that makes more concrete and palpable the response of Northern women to the Civil War. Jean H. Baker Goucher College The PopularPress, 1833-1865. By William E. Huntzicker. The History ofAmerican Journalism. (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1999. Pp. xii, 224. $65.00.) This book, the third in the History of American Journalism series, addresses journalistic developments in the period from the Age of Jackson through the Civil War. William Huntzicker discusses the emergence ofthe commercial penny press, starting with the New York Sun, and moves on to discuss the emergence of other similar papers, primarily in New York. Next, he offers an overview of the partisan press, magazines, and publications related to abolitionist, minority, and women's groups. He then discusses the impact of the Civil War on the press, focusing on the relationship between the press and politicians and the military. A final chapter provides commentary on the impact ofthe Civil War, industrialism , and commercialism on the changing nature of the press. Huntzicker maintains that the transition from the partisan press to the popular press encompassed the entire period through the Civil War, rather than being "an overnight transformation" (1). He asserts that the commercial, rather than political, aspirations of the penny press paved the way forjournalistic independence and that the penny press's focus on reporting on the lives and activities of ordinary people was a major factor in shifting the reading audience from the elite to the masses. A number of useful accounts of newspaper editors and correspondents appear throughout the book, but some may take issue with the focus on New York papers to the virtual exclusion of other large newspaper markets. Huntzicker's major interpretations provide a mixed bag. Most convincing is his discussion of how the Civil War accelerated changes in American journalism , such as greater reliance on correspondents and a focus on the delivery of objective news. His discussion of Lincoln's relationship with the press, moving away from patronage and toward a skillful use of the medium, is enlightening. Other interpretations, however, are less convincing. His point that the penny papers increased the demand for news lacks depth and fails to address economic and demographic factors. His assertion that the Civil War created an interest in news over opinion and political essays also lacks solid support. Huntzicker attempts to give historical context to the narrative by providing brief historical accounts related to his discussion. Unfortunately, these sketches tend to lack substance and, at points, accuracy. For example, his discussion of the Bank War (36) is not in accord with standard accounts, nor is his statement BOOK REVIEWS283 that slaves comprised "a majority of nine million in a population of five million residents" in the South (117). The standard is usually the reverse of this figure. As a general overview of the press in this period, The Popular Press, 18331865 allows readers access to some ofthe highlights ofthe era. As a synthesis of journalistic developments, however, it simply tries to do too much in too little space. Huntzicker's bibliography and bibliographic essay demonstrate strong research, as well as a good grasp of the literature. The book, however, will disappoint readers seeking a comprehensive and coherent examination of the mass media in the antebellum and Civil War periods. Robert Page Floyd College To Die For: The Paradox ofAmerican Patriotism. By Cecilia Elizabeth O'Leary. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999. Pp. xiii, 365. $29.95.) To Die For: The Paradox ofAmerican Patriotism enters the growing scholarship on postbellum society's redefinition of patriotism and what it meant to be a good American. Cecilia Elizabeth O'Leary considers "the consolidation of patriotic cultures" (4) through the voluntary associations, memorials, and holidays that shaped the country after the Civil War. She argues that the construction of patriotism came out of "fiercely contested debates" (3) between the "nationalist movement" (98), which defined patriotism as loyalty to nation above all else, and black rights advocates. The Grand Army of the Republic and its auxiliary Women's Relief Corps...


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pp. 282-283
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