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BOOK REVIEWS261 Grew," among many similar ones, do not even mention die poets, about whom the reader learns nothing but their names. Another shortcoming, especially unexpected of an anthology edited by a historian and published by a university press, is that no references are provided to help interested readers locate additional CivU War poems or scholarship on the poetry and poets. The only sources listed are acknowledgments of permission to publish items still under copyright. For nineteenth-century poems, then, no textual sources are given; die poems may have been drawn from newspapers or early"collections, corrupt texts or sound ones. Furthermore, no dates are noted for either die composition or initial pubUcation of die individual poems. Although Lee Steinmetz's antiiology, The Poetry of the American Civil War (i960), has its own problems, it presents die poems more satisfactorily in a literary and social context than Marius's collection, and readers interested specificaUy in war poetry ofdie i86os, to which Steinmetz limited his volume, would do well to consult it. According to a statement on die dustjacket, "77«? Columbia Book ofCivil War Poetry is a unique anthology that collectors, gift-givers, and general readers fascinated by American lore will appreciate." In other words, it is intended for apopular market, though many readers of Civil War Hûtory would consider it a welcome addition to theirhome Ubraries. The sUghtly oversized formatis weU designed; die poems are laid out attractively, more than fifty excellent period photographs complement die text, and die modest price is appealing. Sanford E. Marovitz Kent State University Race, Ethnicity, and Urbanization: SelectedEssays. By Howard N. Rabinowitz. (Columbia: University ofMissouri Press, 1994. Pp. 371. $42.50.) In Race, Ethnicity, and Urbanization, historian Howard N. Rabinowitz includes only one previously unpublished essay, a severe critique of recent trends in die historical profession coupled with a manifesto of sorts on what Rabinowitz dunks history shouldbe. OfdiefourteenrepubUshedessays, onetracesurbandevelopment in die South between i860 and 1900, another provides a helpful historiographical and theoretical analysis ofcultural pluraUsm, and two discuss Soutiiem Jews. The remainder of die essays focus on African Americans or race relations, most often in die urban South during die years from the Civil War to die end of die nineteenth century. They examine diverse topics—blacks and die police, individual black leaders during Reconstruction, and even die future of race relations. Almost half of diem, though, analyze C. Vann Woodward's The Strange CareerofJim Crow or expound on Rabinowitz's alternative diesis, that post-Civil War race relations in die South proceeded from "exclusion to segregation ." These essays do become repetitive, as Rabinowitz fears, but they, along with his book on urban race relations in die South, have done much to shape 2Ó2CIVIL WAR HISTORY historians' conceptions ofSouthern race relations. With them, he has convinced most historians that segregation began during Reconstruction, not the 1890s, as Woodward had contended, and that Radical Republicans, with the support of African Americans, adopted segregation as an improvement over the white South's refusal to provide any pubUc services for blacks. Having firmly rooted the origins of segregation in Reconstruction, Rabinowitz does acknowledge that something important happened in Southern race relations during the 1890s, but he does not explore this point at any length. He still considers Reconstruction the more important era. These essays not only reprise what has thus far been Rabinowitz's major scholarly contribution; they suggest at least two other important themes in his work. First, as he mentions in the introduction, Rabinowitz writes from a comparative perspective that is sometimes, but not always, expUcit. His most common comparison, that between North and South, is developed more fully in another book, The FirstNew South. In various essays here, though, he compares Southern and Northern race relations. In one essay, he observes that race relations are more important in the South because African Americans constitute a larger percentage ofits population. In another, he suggests that the creation of Southern urban ghettoes foreshadowed those of the North; or, to put it another way, as the number of blacks in their midst increased, Northerners acted more like Southerners. One might conclude, though Rabinowitz does not do so here, that sectional differences in race...


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