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This article describes the rehabilitation programs of the Polish Prison Service, which incorporate various types of cultural, educational, and library activities. The main focus is on the author's analysis of rehabilitation programs in existence between 1981 and the present. The changes in the laws that govern these activities are described, as well as how the organization of the Polish prison system and the current sentence structure determine how rehabilitation programs are provided in the correctional institutions. The goals and objectives of prison libraries are explored, as they relate to the rehabilitation process and activities. The library collections and access to library materials are discussed, as well as library premises and library staffing. The author's research data form the basis for the analysis of prison library development over the last thirty years. The article also discusses various innovative rehabilitation programs that have been implemented under the theme of "education through culture and art." These include, among others, cultural and educational programs to help substance abusers overcome their addition and readjust to society, assertiveness training, and participation in cultural activities. These programs are also designed to enhance the offenders' literacy skills and to encourage their creativity and potential talent in music and fine arts. Finally, the article describes prison theater activities, literary clubs, and activities that promote reading (e.g., book exhibits, author talks, and the reading of books over the prison broadcasting system).