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BOOK REVIEWS185 research in manuscripts, and his portraits of both the institutions and individuals of science are incisive as well as judicious. Three parts of the book cover the years to 1861. After describing the influence of Europe and the state of American science when Louis Agassiz arrived in 1846, Bruce discusses the dimensions of becoming and being a scientist in the United States. Although he considers technology in relation to science, Bruce sees little connection between the two, despite public opinion to the contrary. He shows how the Smithsonian Institution under Joseph Henry along with various state and federal agencies , especially Alexander Dallas Bache's Coast Survey, the army, and the navy, provided institutional and financial support for science. Bruce credits the Lazzaroni, an elite group of scientists, with an effort to gain wide financial support for science with no accompanying strings, and he evaluates the role of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1848). Part four demonstrates that civil war blighted American science, especially in the South, and hit technology hard. Nevertheless, foundations were laid for future scientific advance with the Morrill Land Grant Act (1862), the Department of Agriculture (1862), and the National Academy of Sciences (1863) . "All the key elements of the modern American scientific establishment had made at least an initial appearance by the end of the seventies" (p. 353). Both authors emphasize European influences on American life, and both depict an ongoing conflict between elite groups and the public in a democratic culture. Bender deals with science, and both authors emphasize higher education. Bender not only describes but often celebrates his subject a bit uncritically; Bruce maintains a dispassionate tone. Both books are a pleasure to read. Knopf has produced two handsome volumes which are indispensable to the student ofAmerican intellectual and cultural history. Winston U. Solberg University of Illinois at Urbana Outposts on the Gulf: Saint George Ishnd 6- Apahchicoh from Early Exploration to World War II. By William Warren Rogers. (Pensacola: University of West Florida Press, 1987. Pp. xxv, 297. $29.95.) William Warren Rogers, professor of history at Florida State University, has demonstrated his skills as a historian in Outposts on the Gulf. He has produced a painstakingly researched account of the economic, social, and political history of Apalachicola and Saint George Island, which includes a fascinating short biography of William Lee Popham—"the self-styled millionaire oyster king," the mayor of Apalachicola, and the owner of Saint George Island. 186CIVIL WAR history The book is the first volume of a proposed two volume set. It traces the development of the mainland town and its island from the exploration of the Florida panhandle in the early nineteenth century up to 1941. The first half of the book deals with the changes Apalachicola experienced during the nineteenth century. Owing to the important role William Popham played in Apalachicola and Saint George Island, the second half of the book examines Popham's life and controversial career, considering, among other things, his development of the island. Besides its interesting content, the book contains illustrations thathelp the reader better comprehend the text. Rogers offers a thorough history of Apalachicola and its pristine barrier island. Those interested in Florida history, or those interested in local studies, would especially enjoy the book. No doubt, any reader would gain from Rogers's beautifully written history. I look forward to volume two. Edward L. White III University of Notre Dame The Papers ofJefferson Davis, Volume V, 1853-1855. Edited by Lynda L. Crist; Mary S. Dix, associate editor. (Baton Rouge and London: Louisiana State University Press, 1985. Pp. xiii, 557. $37.50.) The middle-aged Jefferson Davis was a political figure of growing national prominence (some even promoted him as a presidential candidate ), a man enthusiastic about learning and advancing technology, and a man who had an ability to impress others (one admiring younger girl thoughthim "abrilliant conversationalist," noting "it was a liberal education to be with him," p. 16 n. 13). This fifth volume of papers touches principally upon Davis's tour ofduty in Franklin Pierce's cabinet. We see much illustration of his keen mind, some of his personal tragedy (his two-year-old son...


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