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80CIVILWAR HISTORY the blacks "unlawfully transported to Cuba" and free. The Court called Lt. Gedney's seizure ofAmistada "useful service to her owners," worthy of salvage. The Story decision was hardly the final act of the drama. Shortly after that decision, Baldwin asked Adams: "What shall we do with them now they are free?" Adams asked Secretary of State Daniel Webster to arrange passage to Africa, but President John Tyler, in the absence of an appropriation, suggested that the American Colonization Society assume the burden. In the end, private donations chartered the barque Gentleman which departed New York on November 27, 1841, carrying thirty-five black survivors of the long ordeal. They reached Sierra Leone in January 1842, three years after they had been captured and carried into slavery. For the next quarter-century, theAmistad case fueled ill-will between the U.S. and Spain. Ministry after ministry tried to reopen the case, plaguing the administrations of Polk, Taylor, Pierce, and Buchanan. Congressmen from slave states, fearful of the precedent of freeing Africans who had killed a white man with cane knives, consistently supported Madrid's claims, but abolitionists mustered sufficient votes to block legislation which, in effect, would have paid Gedney's salvage money to Ruiz and Montes. Not until civil war rent the nation asunder did the controversy end. As Jones concludes: "The death of slavery in the United States closed the Amistad case" (218). Jones has done an impressive piece of work, starting with prodigious research through mountains of materials which began to accumulate even before the captives had reached New London. He has identified and analyzed the facts of the case, traced abolitionist activities to raise defense funds and stir public opinion, explored political complications and philosophical disputations. Serious about his subtitle, he has dissected and clarified legal argumentation involving reams of diplomatic correspondence—American, British, and Spanish. The result is a well organized book, handsomely illustrated, generously documented. Students of diplomatic, legal, political, and social history will all find it valuable and illuminating. Dudley T. Cornish Pittsburg State University Captains of the Old Steam Navy: Makers of the American Naval Tradition , 1840-1880. Edited by James C. Bradford. (Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1986. Pp. xvi, 356. $24.95.) The transition from sail to steam—forced, focused, and intensified by the Civil War—is central to the nineteenth-century American naval experience . Captains of the Old Steam Navy, a collection ofbrief, authoritative biographical essays, conveys that centrality in the careers of thir- BOOK REVIEWS81 teen American naval officers who both effected and were affected by the innovations which ended the age of fighting sail and heralded the era of modern naval warfare. Of these men the most familiar to the general reader are those who won fame in conventional fashion: the wartime exploits of Andrew Hull Foote, Samuel F. DuPont, David Farragut, Raphael Semmes, John Rodgers, Franklin Buchanan, and David Dixon Porter qualify them for historical recognition; they are the heroes of shot and shell, of tactical ingenuity, of romantic bravado, of impatience verging on the insubordinate , or of remarkable (if not always successful) leadership. Others, however, warrant attention for achievements of a different order. These are the scientists (Charles Wilkes, Matthew Fontaine Maury), the diplomatic emissaries (Matthew C. Perry, Robert W. Shufeldt ), or the inventors and pioneers of new technologies (John Dahlgren, Benjamin F. Isherwood). Many of these naval officers, of course, served with notable distinction in peacetime as well as wartime; and many had careers so extensive and varied that to fit them into any single category is to do injustice both to them and to the comprehensive, analytical, and often well-written accounts which comprise this collection . The chronological span ofthese essays and the overlapping careers of their subjects provide a welcome range of perspective on such major topics as the halting introduction of steam as an auxiliary source of motive power, the testing of new technologies and tactical theories in the Mexican and Civil Wars, and the controversial and problematical birth of the "New Navy" of the 1880s, following a dismal period of postwar retrenchment and diminution of naval resources. The men here portrayed and assessed were, indeed, both heirs and...


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