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BOOK REVIEWS275 know the man. A paucity of source material closes out much of Schofield 's intimate life. There are only two references to his wife and almost nothing about his five children. Evidence that he had a brother who was also a Federal general appears only in a casual reference to the fact that the brother accompanied Schofield on his Paris mission. The General's family, his associations with friends and colleagues, and his elusive "sense of humor" and humanness slip through only occasionally , and when they do the impressions they leave often contradict the image set in the author's discussion of Schofield's service in war and Reconstruction. It is also regrettable that the author weighed his book so heavily in favor of Schofield's war record at the expense of his significant Reconstruction efforts. An in-depth study of the General's involvement in Virginia post-war affairs and his accomplishments in the troubled times of Reconstruction would have added an important dimension to this work. As it stands it, even with the poor maps that mar its otherwise well-prepared text, is a book for Civil War buffs. Most of them should enjoy its clear forceful style, its objective discussions of controversial issues, and a new look at a general whose "industrious and reasonable" leadership place him high among the generals who led the North to victory. Robert Hartje Wittenberg University The Negro in Texas, 1874-1900. By Lawrence D. Rice. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1971. Pp. vii, 309. $10.00.) Should the question be asked what rationale characterized the publisher 's justification of this book the obvious answer would be that it is an establishment book. While its ideological position on the problem is orthodox, though cautious, the work reflects all of the limitations envolved in the publication of dissertations themselves inappropriately conceived. The most impressive aspects of this work is an ambivalence that combines intellectual honesty, candor and altruism with a penchant for orthodoxy and credulity in as curious an intellectual exercise as the current book market affords. Rice admits his necessity to use biased anglo studies in the absence of credible black primary sources; and his inability to set definitive and defensible limits to the conceptual framework of the study. This however does not prevent him from being very cavalier about making unsupported generalizations in crucial areas and holding to orthodox racism when the very sources he quotes presents evidence to the contrary. The disposition of some southern writers to over-value political history is never better illustrated than in this study. In a work of fourteen chapters approximately eight are devoted to politics; leaving two de- 276CIVIL WAR HISTORY voted to occupations, one to education, one to legal status, and one to social life. This makes for an uneven presentation, which, when accompanied by a pedestrian style and a penchant for an orthodox selectivity of concern, leaves a good deal to be desired in comprehensiveness. This results from the misguided provincial notion that Reconstruction was a purely state bound phenomenon which can be explained through arid legalistics and a run through political conclaves and selected leaders . Despite feeble attempts at altruism, the net thrust is Dunning all the way. Even in the political sections the book brings to focus a good deal of detail about the Negro that may be scattered in obscure thesis, journal articles and books. Persons completely unacquainted with some of the personalities and institutional growth of the Negro in Reconstruction and Post-Reconstruction Texas will find this volume something of a beginning point for detail (not interpretation) should the original sources quoted not be available. There appears a curious note of catharsis , a truth telling about anglo motives and discriminations by design in the occupation, education and legal chapters, as well as in the conclusion that demonstrates the soul-searching that went into this book; for the author injects an undercurrent of escape. Nevertheless, Rice slips back in the chapter of Negro life, demonstrating how deep and ugly are the demands of orthodoxy. This book is indeed a lesson and a warning. The lesson is that conformity takes a terrible toll in critical research; the...


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pp. 275-276
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