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458civil war history unchanging, "touch-not" fetish. In diis one-sided oudook, granted, diey were but counterparts of the Radical Republicans, but die Republicans had history, economic logic, nationalism, and humanitarianism—all die big guns of nineteendi-century ideological warfare—on dieir side. What was more, diey had national power, a fact for dieir political opponents to weigh judiciously. The Copperheads did not do so. As a result, despite Midwestern election victories in 1862, diey were outgeneraled in die Indiana, Ohio, and Illinois state legislatures. By 1864 they were sinking rapidly, with colors nailed to the mast, but not a life raft in sightl Klement does indeed make a contribution in showing that the secret societies of Copperheadism were only a last resort for a desperate handful. The Knights of die Golden Circle and Sons of Liberty were mostly led by inept charlatans, and only Republican oratory puffed diem into major subversive threats to die North. Thus a mythology perpetuated in George F. Milton's Abraham Lincoln and the Fifth Column is dismembered and scattered to die winds. Klement is also on die right track in showing the Copperheads as forebears of Greenbackers and even Populists. His failure here is in not going far enough. The Copperheads, widi dieir "rampant partyism," dieir ignorant suspicions of die modem world, dieir hatred of minorities other than diemselves , and dieir ranting charges, were forelopers of the Ku Klux Klan of die 1920's, die ultra-isolationists of the 1930's, and die spy-hunters of the 1950's. One must, to besure, concede die genuine economic grievances of die Midwest in die Civil War era. Moreover, one must recognize with Klement (and Wood Gray) that such Copperheads as "Sunset" Cox, Wilbur Storey, Daniel Voorhees, George Pendleton, and many odiers were intelligent men who enjoyed successful postwar careers. Nevertheless dieir black-and-white, unreasoning loyalty to "all-out" positions (so comforting to die credulous) puts diem in die main stream of an American tradition of political extremism. They belong in a history of national demagoguery, Northern and Soudiem, Republican , Democratic, and diird-party. It is unfair to task an audior for not doing what he never proposed to do. Yet Copperheads in the Middle West would have been strengthened if placed in his setting of political padiology, or if enriched widi more artistic, psychological , and social insight into die group tensions and frustrations underlying die basic tale. Klement has been masterful in rummaging an enormous collection of newspaper and manuscript sources, but lacks an imaginative and interpretive dimension in his final product. The book savors heavily of die dissertation from which it was probably bom. Bernard A. Weisberger The University of Chicago Southern History of the Civil War. By Edward A. Pollard. 4 vols. (New York: Jack Brüssel, The Blue & Gray Press, 1960. $9.00.) as editor of the "daily Richmond examiner" from 1861 to 1867, Edward A. Pollard had an unique opportunity to report die events of die Civil War as Book Reviews459 diey were viewed at die Confederate capital. Anxious that "New England Yankees" not monopolize die writing of Civil War history, he undertook to chronicle die stirring happenings of 1861-1865 from the viewpoint of die Soudi. As the war progressed, Pollard eventually published four volumes, one for each year of the conflict. Thousands of copies were sold, in part because uSey had no competition. Aldiough die original edition is still available in libraries and used-book stores, it is relatively hard to come by. For diis reason die editors of The Blue & Gray Press have performed a valuable service in offering Pollard's history in four handy paperback offset reprints. Regrettably diey did not see fit to include Pollard's pagination. This may trouble some scholars who are seeking out particular references. Yet, the type comes uSrough clearly enough for any reader's bifocals. As in die original, diere are no maps or illustrations of any kind. In die light of present day scholarship, diese volumes are chiefly valuable as historical curiosa. A frankly partisan work, its content is like odiers of Pollard's books, in die words of Professor J. G. DeR. Hamilton, "journalistic, unscientific, bitterly prejudiced, and often unjust...


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