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Book Reviews455 manned a cannon and displayed such valor in die face of danger that he became the youngest Congressional Medal of Honor recipient in die nation's history. Yet, the artillery arm was continually hampered by a lack of high-ranking officers. Moreover, denied independence of action and placed under die control of infantry officers who knew little and cared less for the problems of cannon dispositions, Federal cannon werenever used to full effect until Gettysburg . But, ironically, gunners never again had die opportunity to flex their muscles as fully, for die struggle in Pennsylvania marked die end of fighting in open country; thenceforth, cannon were used sparingly in die Wilderness campaign and as siege pieces before Petersburg and in neither instance were able to develop their full firepower. In a work as detailed as diis, it is almost natural that a few proofreading slips would and do exist. On page 73 die text is repeated almost verbatim in die accompanying footnote, and die closing paragraph of die book is a repetition of material found on page 135. Illustrations of die various types of cannon, as well as of some of die outstanding gunners in die Eastern army, would have greatiy enhanced die book. But die work is a first-rate product of scholarship and writing, and it jusdy belongs on die shelf of every student who follows die army of McDowell, McClellan, Burnside, Hooker, and Meade. James I. Robertson, Jr. State University of Iowa Lincoln's Plan of Reconstruction. By William B. Hesseltine. (Tuscaloosa , Alabama: Confederate Publishing Co., 1960. Pp. 154. $4.00.) this fine little paperback volume is No. 13 of die Confederate Centennial Studies under die editorship of William Stanley Hoole. All of diese monographs are issued in a limited edition of 450 copies, and collectors should place dieir orders quickly. The address is P.O. Box Southside 9067, Tuscaloosa , Alabama. Twenty tides are scheduled for publication in this series. Dr. Hesseltine, professor of history at die University of Wisconsin, prepared Uns study from die lectures which he delivered at Memphis State University. He asks the question: "If Lincoln had lived to complete his second term," would Reconstruction have been different in the defeated Soudiern states? In partial answer Professor Hesseltine remarks diat Reconstruction "might indeed have been different had Lincoln lived," but one must look at Lincoln's plans of Reconstruction which were already operating (or had operated) before his tragic assassination in 1865. Lincoln's first attempts took place in the border states and were political in nature; he tried to keep diese regions loyal by appointing Union men to office. The President was somewhat successful in diis venture. Then, on December 8, 1863, he proclaimed his Amnesty and Reconstruction policy. If 10 per cent of those voting in 1860 would take die oadi of allegiance, loyal governments could be established by election. Louisiana, already controlled 456civil war history by Federal forces, held elections and chose Michael Hahn as governor. But this plan was not much of a success in eiuSer Louisiana or Arkansas, and Congress quickly developed its own scheme. The Wade-Davis Bill was promulgated and finally passed by bodi houses. It declared, among odier tilings, diat Reconstruction could not begin until armed resistance and rebellion had ended. And Congress was to be die agency to preside over die various steps. Naturally, Lincoln resented diis slap by die "Radicals"—who disagreed diat die President was die one to administer Reconstruction—and refused to sign die bill Wade and Davis issued a manifesto against Lincoln's "pocket veto" of dieir measure, but by utilizing die soldiers' votes, Lincoln's government in die North was re-elected by a slim majority of USe popular votes in 1864. WiuSin a few weeks before die war's end, Lincoln seems to have revised again his plans for Reconstruction. He counseled Grant, Sherman, and Porter to give conciliation and forgiveness to the Rebels. He hinted diat legislatures in die SoutiSem states might be allowed to continue tiSeir operations if diey swore fealty to the Union. Aldiough his several plans for Reconstruction never worked on a large scale, Lincoln remolded die United States into a stronger federal system...


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