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Articles Twelfth-Century Koryö Politics: The Rise of Han Anin and His Partisans Edward J. Shultz 1 wo briefentries in the Koryösa delineate the contours ofan era. For the twelfth month of 1122 the Koryösa notes that the king's uncle, Prince Po, was exiled to Kyöngsan-bu, Han Anin and Yi Chungyak were killed, and Mun Kongmi and nine others were banished to the provinces.' Some forty-eight years later, in the autumn of 1 170, the Koryösa matter-of-factly states that "Kim Iyöng, Yi Chaksüng, Chöng So and others were summoned to the capital and given back their office land (chikchön)." At the same time, it indicates that Mun Kükkyöm, Ch'oe Yuch'öng, and Im Kükch'ung, became important policymakers for the dynasty.2 These two events are separated by a half century, the former occurring after the death of King Yejong and the latter coming on the heels of the 1170 military coup d'état. In between these dramatic Support in completing this research project has been generously rendered by Hanyang University, the Korean-American Educational Commission, and the International Cultural Society of Korea. 1.Koryösa (hereafter cited as KS), Yonsei ed. (Seoul, 1972) 15:3a-b. 2.KS 19:12b. Im Kükch'ung made Executive of the Royal Secretariat (chungsösirang p'yöngjangsa) immediately after the 1170 coup; KS 19:11b Koryösa chöryo (hereafter, KSC), Hösa Bunkö ed. (Tokyo, 1960) ll:57a-b. Ch'oe Yuch'öng made the same rank at the start of Myöngjong's reign, KS 99:3a. Mun Kükkyöm became Right Transmitter (usüngsön) at that time. KS 19:1 lb—12a; KSC ll:57a-b. 4 Journal of Korean Studies episodes, two other major rebellions occurred, one led by the royal in-law Yi Chagyöm and the other by the exorcist monk Myoch'öng. In this paper, focusing on the issues of Yejong (1 105-22), Injong (1 12246 ) and Üijong's reigns (1 146-70), I will examine this era in terms of domestic policy and power conflicts. Further, I will demonstrate that there was a direct connection between the purge in 1122 and the military revolt in 1 170. Mid-twelfth century Koryö has been studied by others. Several scholars have examined the Yi Chagyöm and Myoch'öng rebellions in terms of Koryö's foreign relations and the 1 126 collapse of the Northern Sung dynasty.3 While not denying the importance of these events, I contend that many of the major issues of the day can best be understood by examining the formation of a domestic political faction. This faction, initially led by Han Anin, emerged in Yejong's reign, struggled for influence during Injong and Üijong's reigns, and then joined the military rulers who seized control in the 1 170 coup. The glue that bound this group contained many ingredients: close marriage and family ties, a regional affiliation with rural Kyonggi, inexperience in Kaegyöng politics, similar educational backgrounds, active participation in the censorial agencies (Taegan), and ties with Son Buddhism that led them toward a new, Neo-Confucian inquiry. Many members of this faction were blocked from high positions at the beginning of the century. They persisted, however, and found numerous ways to enhance their power and forward their programs. In tracing the formation and activities of this Han group, this study will provide an insight into the complex politics and society of mid-Koryö. It was a dynamic period. Men challenged the aristocratic families that had monopolized society. New philosophical vigor and institutional innovation affected the tenor of the age. Han Anin was an active participant in the trials of his age. Armed with a solid education in Confucian ethics, and supported by similarly trained scholars, he set out to alter the traditional power relationships and to broaden access to the highest echelons ofauthority. He and his associates were beaten back by Yi Chagyöm, sidetracked by 3. Yi Pyöngdo in Koryö sidae yön'gu (hereafter cited as Koryö yön'gu) (Seoul: Ulyu munhwasa, 1948), pp...


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