This article examines the scholarly literature giving advice to U.S. unions on the strategic direction they should pursue. It divides much of the literature into two main schools of thought: "value added" or "mutual gains" unionism (VAU), and "social movement" unionism (SMU). Both schools of thought are explained and evaluated. The two are then compared, using contemporary national and local examples to illustrate each. After comparing their prospects and advantages/disadvantages, the article concludes that SMU has a better likelihood of reviving the U.S. labor movement, although its adoption as dominant practice is far from assured.