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This paper examines the impact of environmental and organizational characteristics on the electoral mobilization activities of local unions in the 2000 presidential election. Based on a sample of 140 southern local unions, the study finds that, externally, the strength of the labor movement relative to competing political interests in the state, along with the organizing and political activities of international unions, promotes the electoral activism of local unions. However, both economic inequalities and racial conflicts seem to discourage the electoral activities of local unions. Internally, the development of rank-and-file leadership and internal organizing also supports the electoral activism of local unions. The implications of the results and some directions for future research are discussed.