This study tests a learning productivity model for undergraduates at four-year colleges and universities using hierarchical linear modeling. Data were from 44,238 full-time enrolled undergraduates from 120 four-year colleges and universities who completed the College Student Experiences Questionnaire (CSEQ) between 1990 and 1997. Perceptions of the campus environment influenced student learning productivity by affecting institution-level student effort, learning efficiency, and student gains. Student affairs professionals and other educators can promote higher levels of student learning by helping to create environments that enhance learning efficiency and engage students in educationally purposeful activities.