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8 CHINESE MERCHANT MANUALS AND ROUTE BOOKS Endymion P. Wilkinson University of London Chinese Merchant Manuals and route books form a unique and little utilized source for posting routes, trade routes, market location, business practices and merchant ethics in China from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries. Such works were usually wood-block printed by local book-stores who jumbled titles, falsified dates, borrowed prefaces, etc. , in a manner which makes some preliminary bibliographic spadework essential. The following list (arranged chronologically) is based on my own working notes and includes only those manuals which I have actually seen. It is by no means exhaustive. Many of the popular Encyclopoedias for Daily Use ( jihyung lej-shu Q }f] ^^ -§j~ ) contain materials of a similar nature to the Manuals. References to three of the more interesting are included here. List of Library Abbreviations 1. Bunkyo: Tokyo University, Tôyô Bunka Kenkyüjo Tosho-shitsu %ìk^-p^tf » ' Chüan 21, Shang-lü men jtfj O**J \ contains sections on Rules for merchants ( ^- $ ^LJ^" I^T ); Weights and measures; crops; shippers etc. (in ~T~ /%/ ) For the compiler -publisher Yu Hsiang-tou, see Ch'en Yen li et al • Fuchienpan-penchih J^ìf^JÌ^3^-'^l· Í¿ · 1922. References: Terada Takanobu, |tf jf^^f Á\ *> li %"% \l ^* '¦ ? Tôyôgaku 20 (1968), 111-126. 3ÍC sk ^C ïic SÍC 3ÎC 3ÎÎ (Hsin-k'e ssu-min pien-yung) Pu-ch'iu jen po-lan ch'iian12 chüan No compiler Ming Published by the T'an-yi shu-lin y%^j% Size: 24 ? 14 cms. Location: Hosa; Niida; Vatican Chüan 2, Ti-yti men -J^J?* f ? contains T'ien-hsia Iuch 'eng yü-chin^ &~Z |^i~^á H$A->The routes start from Shantung to Peking. There are copious notes. -J- y 'S contains lucky days for buying and selling 12 different articles. Also many other editions. Various other popular encyclopaedias, e.g. Ghi-yü ch'üan-shu at the San Huai fang £ $>>f Preface (in fragments) signed Ch 'en Jen-hsi of Ch'ang-chou % -ftl Size: 24 ? 13.5 cms. Location: Hosa. Chüan 2 in the upper section ( Jl ^g ) contains T'ien-hsia shui-lu lu'ch'eng -j& T /^vOt. L^eHfí.witlî routes out from the two capitals. Routes slightly different from 13 No. 2 but has no notes. Also many other editions. (All subsequent editions of Wan-pao ch'üan-shu ?d '?yi3^'contain routes in outline) . t* t* *r n> T* *p *F I-t'ung lu-ch'eng t'u-chi —^^r^íStl^ 8 chüan Selected by Huang Pien # '/%. from Ytieh-shan 2£W ¿l-\ , Hsiu-ning hsien ^yk.% Jvf- . Hui-chou fu^f^^'] ^/f^ , and corrected by Wu Hsiuj» ¿S-)$ of Nan-hao^ PJ& , Suchow. Preface by Huang dated 1570. Postface by Wu dated 1570. Published by X i kuan ? ^fI. (?) Size: 21x11 cms. Location: Naikaku. Contents: Routes (staging distances) from Peking and Nanking to the provincial capitals followed by routes from the two capitals and the provincial capitals to their dependent prefectural cities; border routes; routes in ChiangPei \?-J Q and Chiang -nan -"?- h¿i . Total: approx. - 14 150 routes. There is a map of the empire showing routes from Peking out derived from Su Tung-p'o, Ti-Ii chihsOziijt âit$\f" and ChuSi-Pen- fZ-4- -' Author: Although there is a section on the YUeh-shan Huang's in Shin-an ming-tsu chih J^J£^2./ftjj^£\there is no mention of Huang Pien. According to the preface Huang travelled with his father and brothers to Changsha, then to the Tung-t'ing lake and down the Yangtze before going up to Yangchow and then towards Peking. Later he settled in Suchow and talked with merchants trading with the two capitals, the thirteen provinces and the border districts , compared and collated previous route books and maps and after twenty-seven years completed the present work. Ji i -> References: Makita Teiryo, 3%"$ ~?? *frSakugen nyû Minki no kenkyu $ß-^_fltj^¿?,fff^ ,.2 vols., Kyoto, 1955, 1958. ******* 15 Shui-lu lu-eh'eng ^^ Jc^í8 chüan Collated by Shang Chün ~È ¿? of K'uai-chi-®^|J Preface signed Yu-tzu jgj -J- , dated 1617 ( J...


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