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nerve fibers in the rat and how, under certain conditions, the potential frequency parallels drinking behavior. Young reviews his studies on the psychological factors influencing eating. The distinction between palatability and appetite is an important contribution. Anliker and Meyer provide experimental studies on the hypothesis diat the ventromedial hypothalamus contains a satiety center, which, in response to rising blood glucose, inhibits eating. Stunkard reports that whether or not gastric contractions ofa practically decerebrated man are inhibited by intravenous injection of glucose, fat, or amino acids depends on whedier he is losing or gaining weight. In aborderline area ofresearch,diereis need to adopt newtechniques to suit a problem. For instance, the use of bar-pressing apparatus to analyze animal behavior has replaced the maze, running alley, etc., in the experiments reported here. This method lends precision in data-gathering but does not constitute a substitute for a study ofmechanisms. In human studies, the questionnaire, psychiatric interview, Thematic ApperceptionTest, and MinnesotaMultiphasic PersonalityInventoryare stillwidelyused. Whedierthese methods are sufficient or whether new approaches are needed to understand how diet affects behavior calls for some consideration. It would be stimulating and rewarding for the participants to talk and exchange views in these meetings. To publish the reports widiout amplification serves only as a quick survey ofthe problems ofworkers in the field. Interested parties will probably read the experimental papers in their complete form from thejournals, or some ofthe essays may be encountered in supplements to the Sunday paper. K. L. Chow University ofChicago Body Water in Man. By Maurice B. Strauss. Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown & Co., 1957. Pp. xix+286. This exceptionally fine book pulls together an immense number of facts and synthesizes a cohesive picture ofthe mechanisms whereby the body controls its content ofwater and of salt. The text is concise (241 pp. exclusive of the adequate Bibliography) and is written in an easy, conversational style that encourages the reader to get into the next chapter, even though the hour is late. It should not be construed, however, diat Dr. Strauss has written for the popular press. This is obviously a scholarly effort. The subject is introduced by an interesting section on cosmogony and comparative physiology. This sets the stage for die studies in man by pointing up why organisms must and how they do maintain optimum intracellular, and ultimately extracellular, fluid volume ; osmotic pressure; and electrolyte concentrations, as the phylogenetic scale advances from simple unicellular water-dwelling organisms to complex mammals. Dr. Strauss very logically begins his discourse on die regulation ofbody water in man widi discussions on thirst and appetite for salt—the regulation ofintake. A searching analysis ofthe regulation ofrenal excretion ofwater and electrolytes follows. Considerable attention is devoted to the posterior pituitary antidiuretic hormone—the mechanism ofits action and the stimulation and inhibition ofits secretion rate. Thereis onechapteron aldosterone. Otherendo343 crine secretions not so vitally involved are also dealt with. The author concludes that the major physiologic function of the antidiuretic hormone is to regulate the volume of intracellular fluid by controlling osmotic pressure in extracellular fluid. Somewhat more tentatively, he proposes diat the principal function ofthe salt-retaining adrenal hormone, aldosterone, is to regulate the extracellular fluid volume as well as the salt content ofthe body, accepting die view that the principal factor governing secretion of aldosterone is extracellular fluid volume. Dr. Strauss speaks frankly and shows no unwillingness to evaluate critically and to propose or defend persuasive concepts. To diis reviewer it appears that perhaps his insights as a renal physiologist are more penetrating dian his endocrinologie analyses. Nevertheless , this book is an exceedingly valuable one to all persons interested in the subject. Richard L. Landau University ofChicago 344 Book Reviews Perspectives in Biology and Medicine · Spring 193S ...

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Additional Information

ISSN
1529-8795
Print ISSN
0031-5982
Pages
pp. 343-344
Launched on MUSE
2015-01-07
Open Access
No
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