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READING, 'RITING, 'RITHMETIC-AND RHYTHMS: A -NEW "RELEVANT" "R"* IN THE EDUCATIVE PROCESS FRANZ HALBERG, JULIA HALBERG, FRANCINE HALBERG, AND ERNA HALBERGI I.Proposition The development of techniques for more effective teaching and learning gains from early interdisciplinary focus on time and rhythms. We document herein the desirability of adding to reading, 'riting, and 'rithmetic a fourth "R"—rhythm—equally relevant to man, his health, and the environment . II.Time and the Humanities A time to be born, a time to die; A time to plant, and a time to pluck up that which is planted. [2] Concepts about the origin and passage of time have preoccupied extraordinary and ordinary men, including, among them, theologians, philosophers , poets, and scientists. One of the most eloquent statements on time is the familiar one from the Old Testament: To everything there is a season, And a time to every purpose under the heaven. Saint Augustine [3, bk. 11, chap. 14] has expressed the concern of those engaged in defining time: What then is time? If no one asks me, I know; if I want to explain it to a questioner , I do not know. But at any rate this much I dare affirm I know: that if nothing passed there would be not past time; if nothing were approaching, there would be no future time; if nothing were, there would be no present time. * From the Macmillan Book of Proverbs, Maxims, and Famous Phrases [1] comes the following reference to the three R's as the cornerstone of instruction well known to many generations: "It was seldom that the examination went beyond the three elementary subjects known as the 3 R's (What philosopher first found out that reading, writing and arithmetic all began with R?)." t Chronobiology Laboratories, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455. Supported by the USPHS (5-K6GM -13, 891), NASA, and NSF. We are indebted to Dr. Andrew Ahlgren, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, for his advice on education and scientific concepts and for actual validation in Minnesota high schools, and to Professor Henry Nash Smith, University of California, Berkeley, for his constructive suggestions. 128 I Franz Halberg et al. · Rhythms in the Educative Process But the two times, past and future, how can they be, since the past is no more and the future is not yet? On the other hand, if the present were always present and never flowed away into the past, how can we say that it is? For it is, only because it will cease to be. Thus we can affirm that time is only in that it tends toward not-being. Many philosophers and poets accept time in recognizing that "things . . . undergo change" [4, bk. 6, sees. 15, 36]. We may or may not regard time as a "river made up of events which happen, and a violent stream; for as soon as a thing has been seen, it is carried away, and another comes in its place, and this will be carried away too" [4, bk. 6, sees. 15, 36]. In any event, we encounter time in many aspects of music, art, and literature. Here form is involved as directly as content. Many and obvious are the "timing" devices of poetry as well as the "takt" or tempo of music involving a beat or pulse recurring at intervals intended to be identical. Even prose can be written or spoken in a "rhythmic " fashion. For example, Flaubert is said to have generated "rhythms" by paragraph divisions [5]. Existentialists such as Sartre created a "rhythm" within the paragraph with such instruments as the comma, the semicolon, and the period, each marking "a pause longer and more absolute than the others" [5]. III. Relative and Relativistic Time in Physics Time and space are given parallel treatment in Newton's theory [6, definition 8; 7, sec. I]. He writes that "times and spaces are as it were the places as well of themselves as of all other things. All things are placed in time as to order of succession; and in space as to order of situation." Newton [7, sec. 1] and Einstein [8, 9] after him conceive of time and...


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