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HOW TO SWIM WITH SHARKS: A PRIMER VOLTAIRE COUSTEAU* Foreword Actually, nobody wants to swim with sharks. It is not an acknowledged sport, and it is neither enjoyable nor exhilarating. These instructions are written primarily for the benefit of those who, by virtue of their occupation , find they must swim and find that the water is infested with sharks. It is of obvious importance to learn that the waters are shark infested before commencing to swim. It is safe to assume that this initial determination has already been made. If the waters were clearly not shark infested, this would be of little interest or value. If the waters were shark infested, the naive swimmer is by now probably beyond help; at the very least he has doubtless lost any interest in learning how to swim with sharks. Finally, swimming with sharks is like any other skill: it cannot be learned from books alone; the novice must practice in order to develop the skill. The following rules simply set forth the fundamental principles that, if followed, will make it possible to survive while becoming expert through practice. Rules 1. Assume unidentified fish are sharks.—Not all sharks look like sharks, and some fish that are not sharks sometimes act like sharks. Unless you ?Little is known about the author, who died in Paris in 1812. He may have been a descendant of François Voltaire and an ancestor of Jacques Cousteau. Apparently, this essay was written for sponge divers. Because it may have broader implications, it was translated from the French by Richard J. Johns, an obscure French scholar and Massey professor and director of the Department of Biomedical Engineering, TheJohn Hopkins University and Hospital, 720 Rutland Avenue, Baltimore, Maryland 21205. Editor's Note.—This article originally appeared in the Summer 1973 issue ofPerspectives . Since then, it has been reprinted (with permission) in numerous other publications. In our view, this peerjudgment warrants its republication for our audience, some ofwhom are new. Others will profit from the reminder.—R.L.L.© 1973 by The University of Chicago. AU rights reserved. 0031-5982/87/3004-0546$01.00 486 I Voltaire Cousteau ¦ How to Swim with Sharks have witnessed docile behavior in the presence of shed blood on more than one occasion, it is best to assume an unknown species is a shark. Inexperienced swimmers have been badly mangled by assuming that docile behavior in the absence of blood indicates that the fish is not a shark. 2.Do not bleed.—It is a cardinal principle that ifyou are injured either by accident or by intent you must not bleed. Experience shows that bleeding prompts an even more aggressive attack and will often provoke the participation of sharks that are uninvolved or, as noted above, are usually docile. Admittedly, it is difficult not to bleed when injured. Indeed, at first this may seem impossible. Diligent practice, however, will permit the experienced swimmer to sustain a serious laceration without bleeding and without even exhibiting any loss of composure. This hemostatic reflex can in part be conditioned, but there may be constitutional aspects as well. Those who cannot learn to control their bleeding should not attempt to swim with sharks, for the peril is too great. The control ofbleeding has a positive protective element for the swimmer . The shark will be confused as to whether or not his attack has injured you, and confusion is to the swimmer's advantage. On the other hand, the shark may know he has injured you and be puzzled as to why you do not bleed or show distress. This also has a profound effect on sharks. They begin questioning their own potency or, alternatively, believe the swimmer to have supernatural powers. 3.Counter any aggression promptly.—Sharks rarely attack a swimmer without warning. Usually there is some tentative, exploratory aggressive action. It is important that the swimmer recognize that this behavior is a prelude to an attack and take prompt and vigorous remedial action. The appropriate countermove is a sharp blow to the nose. Almost invariably this will prevent a full-scale attack, for it makes it clear that you understand the shark's intentions and are prepared...


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