In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:

  • The Evolution of Informed Consent in American Medicine
  • Walter J. Friedlander
Walter J. Friedlander
Address: 2812 S. 105 Avenue, Omaha, Nebraska 68124


1. HIPPOCRATES. Oath 12, translated by W. H. S. JONES. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1984.
2. HIPPOCRATES. Decorum XVI, translated by W. H. S. JONES. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1984.
3. PLATO. Laws IV:720, translated by A. E. TAYLOR. In The Collected Dialogues of Plato, edited by E. HAMILTON and H. CAIRNS. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1971.
4. DE MANDEVILLE, H. Quoted in FADEN, R.; BEAUCHAMP, T. L.; and KING, N. M. P. A History and Theory of Informed Consent. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1986. 65.
5. PERNICK, M. S. The patient's role in medical decision making: A social history of informed consent in medical therapy. In President's Commission for the Study of the Ethical Problems in Medicine and Behavioral Research. Making Health Care Decisions: A Report on the Ethical and Legal Implications of the Patient-Practitioner Relationship. Vol. 3. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1982, App. E.
6. RUSH, B. Observations on the Duties of a Physician and the Methods of Improving Medicine. Philadelphia: Prichard and Hall, 1789. 8.
7. American Medical Association Code of Ethics Adopted May, 1847. Trans. Amer. Med. Assoc. 10:607-620, 1857.
8. HOLMES, O. W. The Young Practitioner. In Medical Essays, 1842-1882. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1911. 388-389.
9. CATHELL, D. W. Book on the Physician Himself and Things that Concern His Reputation and Success. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Davis, 1890. 144.
10. GREGORY, J. Lectures on the Duties and Qualifications of a Physician. Philadelphia: Carey, 1817. 62.
11. PERCIVAL, T. Medical Ethics, edited by C. D. LEAKE. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1927. 91. (Originally published 1803.)
12. ROBERTS, C. L. Blueprint for improved physician-patient relations. JAMA 149:1194-1196, 1952.
13. WILLIAMSON, W. P. Life or death—Whose decision? JAMA 197:793-795, 1966.
14. PELLEGRINO, E. Medical ethics, education and the physician's image. JAMA 235:1043-1044, 1976.
15. SPAETH, G. L. Telling the cancer patient. JAMA 242:1847-1848, 1979.
16. CELSUS. Cited in BERNARD, C. An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine, translated by H. C. GREEN. New York: Dover, 1957. 100. (Originally published 1865.)
17. BEECHER, H. K. Research and the Individual. Boston: Little, Brown, 1970.
18. MYER, J. S. Life and Letters of Dr. William Beaumont. St. Louis: Mosby, 1912. 147-150.
19. MORGAN, J. P. The first reported case of electrical stimulation of the human brain. J. History Med. 37:51-64, 1982.
20. BARTHOLOW, R. Experiments on the functions of the human brain. Brit. Med. J. 1:727, 1874.
21. BEAN, W. B. Walter Reed and the ordeal of human experiments. Bull. History Med. 51:75-92, 1977.
22. WMA's Declaration of Helsinki serves as guide to physicians. JAMA 189(13): 33-34, 1964.
23. JONES, J. H. Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. New York: Free Press, 1981.
24. Hepatitis vaccine tests cause ethics debate. JAMA 220(7):908-914, 1972.
25. LANGER, E. Human experimentation: New York verdict affirms patient's rights. Science 151:663-668, 1966.
26. LEIKUND, M. C. The introduction of vaccination into the United States. Ciba Symb. 3:1114-1124, 1942.
27. LEVINE, R. J. Ethics and Regulation of Clinical Research. Baltimore: Urban and Schwarzenberg, 1981. 209.
28. MORRIS, R. C. Effects of increased litigation. JAMA 215:1043-1044, 1971.
29. KATZ, J. Experimentation with Human Beings, New York: Russell Sage, 1972, 534.
30. WECHT, C. H. Informed consent. Forensic Sci. Internal. 12:175-186, 1978.


Additional Information

Print ISSN
pp. 498-510
Launched on MUSE
Open Access
Back To Top

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Without cookies your experience may not be seamless.