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  • The Evolution of Informed Consent in American Medicine
  • Walter J. Friedlander
Walter J. Friedlander
Address: 2812 S. 105 Avenue, Omaha, Nebraska 68124

References

1. HIPPOCRATES. Oath 12, translated by W. H. S. JONES. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1984.
2. HIPPOCRATES. Decorum XVI, translated by W. H. S. JONES. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1984.
3. PLATO. Laws IV:720, translated by A. E. TAYLOR. In The Collected Dialogues of Plato, edited by E. HAMILTON and H. CAIRNS. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1971.
4. DE MANDEVILLE, H. Quoted in FADEN, R.; BEAUCHAMP, T. L.; and KING, N. M. P. A History and Theory of Informed Consent. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1986. 65.
5. PERNICK, M. S. The patient's role in medical decision making: A social history of informed consent in medical therapy. In President's Commission for the Study of the Ethical Problems in Medicine and Behavioral Research. Making Health Care Decisions: A Report on the Ethical and Legal Implications of the Patient-Practitioner Relationship. Vol. 3. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1982, App. E.
6. RUSH, B. Observations on the Duties of a Physician and the Methods of Improving Medicine. Philadelphia: Prichard and Hall, 1789. 8.
7. American Medical Association Code of Ethics Adopted May, 1847. Trans. Amer. Med. Assoc. 10:607-620, 1857.
8. HOLMES, O. W. The Young Practitioner. In Medical Essays, 1842-1882. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1911. 388-389.
9. CATHELL, D. W. Book on the Physician Himself and Things that Concern His Reputation and Success. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Davis, 1890. 144.
10. GREGORY, J. Lectures on the Duties and Qualifications of a Physician. Philadelphia: Carey, 1817. 62.
11. PERCIVAL, T. Medical Ethics, edited by C. D. LEAKE. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1927. 91. (Originally published 1803.)
12. ROBERTS, C. L. Blueprint for improved physician-patient relations. JAMA 149:1194-1196, 1952.
13. WILLIAMSON, W. P. Life or death—Whose decision? JAMA 197:793-795, 1966.
14. PELLEGRINO, E. Medical ethics, education and the physician's image. JAMA 235:1043-1044, 1976.
15. SPAETH, G. L. Telling the cancer patient. JAMA 242:1847-1848, 1979.
16. CELSUS. Cited in BERNARD, C. An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine, translated by H. C. GREEN. New York: Dover, 1957. 100. (Originally published 1865.)
17. BEECHER, H. K. Research and the Individual. Boston: Little, Brown, 1970.
18. MYER, J. S. Life and Letters of Dr. William Beaumont. St. Louis: Mosby, 1912. 147-150.
19. MORGAN, J. P. The first reported case of electrical stimulation of the human brain. J. History Med. 37:51-64, 1982.
20. BARTHOLOW, R. Experiments on the functions of the human brain. Brit. Med. J. 1:727, 1874.
21. BEAN, W. B. Walter Reed and the ordeal of human experiments. Bull. History Med. 51:75-92, 1977.
22. WMA's Declaration of Helsinki serves as guide to physicians. JAMA 189(13): 33-34, 1964.
23. JONES, J. H. Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. New York: Free Press, 1981.
24. Hepatitis vaccine tests cause ethics debate. JAMA 220(7):908-914, 1972.
25. LANGER, E. Human experimentation: New York verdict affirms patient's rights. Science 151:663-668, 1966.
26. LEIKUND, M. C. The introduction of vaccination into the United States. Ciba Symb. 3:1114-1124, 1942.
27. LEVINE, R. J. Ethics and Regulation of Clinical Research. Baltimore: Urban and Schwarzenberg, 1981. 209.
28. MORRIS, R. C. Effects of increased litigation. JAMA 215:1043-1044, 1971.
29. KATZ, J. Experimentation with Human Beings, New York: Russell Sage, 1972, 534.
30. WECHT, C. H. Informed consent. Forensic Sci. Internal. 12:175-186, 1978.

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Additional Information

ISSN
1529-8795
Print ISSN
0031-5982
Pages
pp. 498-510
Launched on MUSE
2015-01-07
Open Access
No
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