The Salih regime is in a precarious position. It faces a southern secessionist movement, a rebellion in the north, a resurgent al-Qaeda, and a festering socioeconomic crisis. Since 2007, the regime has aggressively curtailed human rights and political freedoms in the name of preserving stability and unity. Yet this has only aggravated challenges and could lead to state fragmentation. An inclusive national dialogue offers a potential way out of the crisis. International efforts to stabilize Yemen should prioritize democratic reform, and be arranged so as to help rather than hinder Yemeni initiatives to achieve peaceful change through dialogue and compromise.