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SHANTUNG IN THE SHUN-CHIH REIGN: THE ESTABLISHMENT OF LOCAL CONTROL AND THE GENTRY RESPONSE ? ififa sity. Seoul»__________________ kwa "0^1P 4^ S-AQ&4eJ£.$ï&fà. 1 (1977).' ' -^ ' ' "? By I Songgyu JfTÍ% Í2-» Seoul National University. Seouldae Dongyang sahak Translated from Korean into Japanese by Yamane Yukio Ú4 ^cj%jÇ_ and Inada Hideko^-|¿(Í^^—, Mindaishi kenkyû VftW £ß?'%>??? (1980), pp. 59-78. Translated from Japanese into English by Joshua A. Fogel, Columbia University. [Editor's note: This is the second and concluding part of the translation.] Contents 1.Introduction 2.The Condition of the Gentry Class at the Time of the Ch'ing Conquest a. The Gentry of Chi-ning department, Yen-chou prefecture 3.Early Ch'ing Policies Toward the Gentry a.Protection and Good Treatment Accorded the Gentry b.Dispatching Local Officials c.Gentry Control 4.Conclusion 3b. Dispatching Local Officials In its early years the Ch'ing had no time to dispatch its own local officials. It entrusted administration and public order in surrendered localities to the Ming local officials who held positions under those authorities who had tendered allegiance to the Ch'ing. This policy was first proclaimed in: (a) the decree "ordering men to remain serving in their posts," which was sent to former magistrates of Fu-ning [Chihli] and Ch'ang-li [Chihli] districts (who had surrendered before the Manchus had entered Peking) ; (b) the acting appointment to the position of department magistrate of Sun Wei-ning.J» fclÌL'|g' ^e Director of Schools in Luan [Chihli] department, who had "led his people in surrender "; and (c) the edict "ordering people to assume the bureaucratic posts that they had held," which was sent to border officials who had surrendered." Thereafter, these procedures were regularly adopted in pacifying various other regions'? and Shantung was no exception. ?8 of course, these were not official government appointments but rather the temporary delegation of authority to surrendered officials and former magistrates on the spot. When conditions calmed down, the Ch'ing planned to ratify or cancel these appointments . 79 These temporary appointments never proceeded easily however. When the pacification of Shantung was temporarily concluded in the 8th month of 1644, Yang Fang-hsing$l)7í^/í and ch'en Chin P^^jpointed out: "In the province of Shantung, there are four hundred civil official positions for the prefectures, departments, and districts, but at present three-quarters of them lie vacant." They urged the rapid appointment and dispatching of local officials . ^O It is thus apparent that the number of local officials who were appointed by the Ch'ing under the edict to retain old posts, as well as former office-holders and gentry temporarily appointed in the pacified areas, was extremely limited. Because in extreme cases the Manchus, unable even to make temporary appointments of district magistrates, entrusted the local administration for a time to the yamen runners, 81 we can conjecture just how hard the Ch'ing strove to secure a local officialdom. There were not many cases in which late Ming local officials escaped en masse and were then able to return to their previous bureaucratic positions. One reason for this was that at the same time as former officials surrendered, they were recalled to the capital through the process of "ascertaining the sincerity of officials" who had formerly led local militias. In addition, the gentry, after offering their allegiance to the Manchus, vacillated over whether to become officials (particularly local officials) for an alien dynasty. In the 8th month of 1644, Dorgon gave vent to his dissatisfaction for exactly this reason: "In each locality there are civil and military officials who have surrendered... They survey the scene and outwardly surrender, but inwardly they are of two minds." Under such fluid circumstances , the violence of local bandits and the consequent instability of local control were the major reasons why local officials hesitated to assume their appointments. This point is made clear in the following memorial (dated 1644/8/25) of the Shantung Regional Inspector, Chu Lang-shuo%$${$% '¦ When I entered the region, bandits were everywhere... In I and Chiao departments , two divisions have already been stationed and have themselves been able to quell the bandits and pacify the people...


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