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256 China Review International: Vol. 1, No. 2, Fall 1994 Gaozu appears both as "Gaozu" and as "Gaozi," for example, and the city Chongqing appears both as "Chongqing" and as "Chongjing." More importantly, the lack of an analytical framework becomes a serious problem toward the end of the book, where Schirokauer seems to lose control of his material. The last three chapters oVer a kind of histoire événementielle, dwelling on political and especially military developments, with little or no reference to larger themes. The last chapter in particular lacks coherence, as it attempts a rapid survey of Chinese political, economic, and cultural experience since 1949. A stronger analytical framework would have enabled the author to offer a better integrated text and to place contemporary experience more securely in the longer run of Chinese history. Instructors will of course devise ways to overcome these problems, which will perhaps even disappear in future editions of Schirokauer's work. Jerry H. Bentley University of Hawai'i® Stuart R. Schräm, editor. Mao's Road to Power: Revolutionary Writings, 1912-1949. Volume 1, The Pre-Marxist Period, 1912-1920. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1992. Hardcover $110, Paperback $37.50. This is the first volume of a comprehensive, ten-volume edition of Mao Zedong's writings from 1912 to 1949 in English translation. A collection of historical source material, this first volume includes a translation of every item of Chinese text from 1912 to 1920 that could be obtained. Stuart R. Schräm states that, "Mao's explicit commitment to Marxism and communism falls [i.e., begins] just after the date of the last text included in this volume." The 250,000 words of text in this volume reAect the many facets and the kaleidoscopic changes in Mao's thought and revolutionary practice during this pre-Marxist period. The book contains a general introduction to Mao Zedong and the Chinese revolution, an introduction to Mao's writings from 1912 to 1920, and a "Note on Sources and Conventions." The abundantly textured materials comprise essays, commentaries, classroom notes, letters, records of conversations with Mao by his contemporaries, public announcements from workers' evening school and from© 1994 by University his journal XiangRiver Review as well as other organizations with which he was ofHawai ? Pressactively involved—all ofwhich are presented in a single chronological sequence. The volume starts with an essay on one of the founders of the "Legalist" school, which Mao wrote in June 1912 as a first-year student at die middle school Reviews 257 in Changsha. This essay was so highly regarded by his teacher that it was marked for circulation among all the members of the class. The entries for 1913 comprise Mao's Classroom Notes between October and December, when he was a student in the preparatory class at Fourth Normal School in Changsha. These notes reveal the profound influence on Mao of the traditional Confucian idea of xiushen, that is, self-cultivation, as well as his deep love for classical Chinese poems. There are seventeen of Mao's letters, written in 1915 and 1916, mostly to Xiao Zisheng, one of his intimate friends of this period. Other entries include a teacher's record of a conversation with him, a poem in the classical style in memory of a friend, and two epigraphs. The eighteen entries for 1917-1918 consist of a variety of Mao's writings, including letters to friends and relatives, ofwhich one was to Miyazaki Toten, a Japanese supporter of the Chinese revolutionaries of Sun Yat-sen's generation; an essay on physical education; a Foreword to Xiao Zisheng's All in One Self-Study Notes; Zhang Kundi's record of two talks with Mao; a Chinese language teaching plan Mao wrote during his practice teaching period; a public announcement inviting students to workers' evening school; an evening school journal; two lines Mao wrote on the occasion of a memorial meeting for students of Hunan First Normal School who had died of illness (out of ignorance that students needed physical exercise); and three couplets, one in mourning for a deceased student, one in praise of swimming, and a third in response to a composition by Mr. Xia...


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