In 1955 Kim Il Sung had every reason to feel uneasy about de-Stalinization ideas in the Communist camp. Since Soviet Koreans were the most likely conduit for the new and dangerous trends, in late 1955 Kim launched a preemptive strike against this powerful group. During the winter of 1955-56 many prominent Soviet Koreans suffered humiliating attacks. The entire campaign was rather low profile, but it was of great importance for DPRK history. The term chuch'e was coined in the midst of this campaign. This article uses declassified materials from Soviet archives to give a picture of these important events.