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38Bulletin of Friends Historical Association survey was a map of the Paris Basin made some years later by a French scientist, Jean E. Guettard (1715-1786). John Bartram's scheme of 1756 anticipated by many years the founding of a geological survey in this country and, for that matter , antedated the actual teaching of geology. The first instruction in geology was given at Yale by Benjamin Silliman in 1802; the first geological map of the country was that of William Maclure, issued in 1809; and the first state surveys—those of the two Carolinas—were organized in 1824. In view of the data presented here, some two hundred years after John Bartram expounded his theories of geology, one feels entitled to make the claim that he was the "first American-born geologist." TO OHIO ONE HUNDRED YEARS AGO: EXCERPTS FROM THE JOURNAL OF THOMAS ELKINTON Selected by J. Passmore Elkinton* In September 1856 Joseph S. Elkinton (1830-1905) of Philadelphia , a member of Arch Street Yearly Meeting, and Malinda Patterson (1836-1920) of Ohio Yearly Meeting (Conservative) were married at the bride's home meeting at Somerton, near Barnesville, Ohio. The groom's brother, Thomas, kept a journal of the family expedition from Philadelphia to the wedding, from which the following excerpts are taken.1 Traveling was different in those days! On Sixth Day, Eighth Month 22nd, 1856, having "bade farewell for a season to calculations and surveying in general," the writer "proceeded with locking, strapping and roping trunks— there being baggage enough for a voyage to Europe. . . . Having received the honorable post of baggage master," he continues, "I took leave soon after dinner and loaded up the wagon with baggage [and] checked it to Wheeling. At 1:00 o'clock we started * J. Passmore Elkinton of Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, is a greatnephew of the writer of this journal. The footnotes have been supplied by the Editor of the Bulletin. 1 The original of this journal now belongs to Thomas W. Elkinton of Moorestown, New Jersey. Notes and Documents39 [by train] and, passing over the intervening part of the city, crossed the city, crossed the Schuylkill, and stood boldly down for Baltimore. . . . "Arrived at the Susquehanna, in obedience to the exhortation of an urchin who shouted in at the window, 'Passengers now take the boat/ we gathered up big bag, little bag and satchel and bonnet box, hat box and bundle, and passed on to a boat—of unusual construction for ferry purposes, being very long and the upper deck upheld by numerous massive pillars in order to sustain the baggage cars upon it. Landing safely upon the western side, we were soon seated again in railroad cars. . . . Whilst riding along, about half way between Havre de Grace and Baltimore, the train came to a stand at a place where no station was visible; it appeared that one of the wheels had heated up enough to fire the truck, and the train had stopped for the purpose of extinguishing the flame, which was done by means of buckets of water from the tender; further on, as the truck fired again, a stop was made at a water tank. ... As we neared the city [Baltimore], the truck became again on fire, but it was allowed to burn, and the train held on its swift-moving course and finally brought up in the depot, through which we were obliged to hurry in great haste and excitement to the street in front, where we entered some horse cars bound for the western depot [of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad]. These cars were crowded, many of us standing and parts of our company being in the other car; yet in due time, after another scene of excitement in obtaining seats in the Wheeling train, we were all again comfortably located, and, drawing a long breath, prepared to see how it fared with the rest of the world. "As the shades of night closed in upon us while we were sweeping swiftly among the hills and outside prospects became less and less interesting, finally with bonnets tied up to the top and hats disposed for the night and heads arranged for a nap, we endeavored to...


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